Thursday, September 21, 2017

Besting Bill Ludlow.

Bill Ludlow is an evolutionist who frequents the internet quite often. I typically see him on facebook.
He is a member of several prestigeous evolution promoting groups:Geological Society of America,Southwest Paleontological Society,National Center for Science Education.  He had one of the few ever Succesful debates recently against creation science proponent Kent Hovind.  Although I believe this is more an issue of Kent seeming distracted and not fully prepared.  However, Bill is one of the more keen and aggressive defenders of Darwinism and is a worthy adversary in all respects.  I will likely pursue a formal debate with Mr. Ludlow in the future.  Until then I had a succesful exchange with him yesterday.  I am presenting his post and later exchange with me.  Now basically Bill's uniformitarian dates are fallacious as I have identified in other articles.  He applies the fallacy of cherry picking his preferred fossils( as opposed to giants and other mutated fossils.) he also uses the fallacy of induction and assumes a lineage without evidence from a small population.
I decided to publish this the day after the exchange although Bill might respond later.

Bill Ludlow
"Creationists constantly make the claim "there are no transitional fossils." You can see it on every creationist website and in every discussion group every day of the year. They repeat this mantra over and over, even when given direct empirical evidence to the contrary. While there are literally thousands of transitional species in the fossil record, lets focus on just this one for now.
Homo erectus lived between 1.9 million years ago and possibly 70,000 years ago, which means it pre-dated modern humans, but also existed in places at the same time as us since we have been around nearly 200,000 years.
Transitional features of Homo erectus:
Intermediate in height between earlier species such a the australopithecines and later species such as H. sapiens, Homo erectus males averaged 5' to 5.5' tall.
Homo erectus skulls were shaped differently than modern humans and show intermediate features between earlier species and us. They had larger brow ridges, larger neck muscles attached to the back of the head, and a shallow sloping forehead like more primitive species.
Homo erectus cranial capacity was intermediate between earlier species and later species. Their cranial capacity averaged 70% of modern humans, but at least 50% larger than previous species. More recent specimens had larger cranial capacity than those that were a million years older.
While anatomy from the neck down was very similar to modern humans, arm and leg bones were more dense like we see in australopithecines and Neandertals.
Early Homo erectus teeth were intermediate in shape and size between modern humans and australopithecines, but later H. erectus specimens have smaller teeth more like us.
Besides transitional anatomical features, evidence shows H erectus made stone tools, hunted game, and had mastered the use of fire much like us. There is no evidence earlier species like the australopithecines were that far advanced, showing they were transitional as far as technology and culture goes too.
Please limit comments to discussing the transitional aspects of Homo erectus.


Matt SIngleton
Hey Bill when is the next KLAN meeting? Your pic LITERALLY looks like a a guy I knew from amateur wrestling.

another skeptic: Another idiotic comment that doesn't address an iota of the OP.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow They'll do anything to avoid discussing the obvious transitional features.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow Personal insult #5472

· Reply · 1 hr
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton Of course it addresses the fact that humans don't transition into humans. They are just human. Have that dude have kids with a white person and then have them marry and breed again and if maybe one or two more generations and his descendents will be white or as you call them homosapian sapiens. If you want a case study try living in the hood.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow Have homo erectus go to the hood and breed with white people? Really?
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton Stop caliing black people Homo Erectus
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton Chinese men tend to average 5'2" are they not human either?
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton Hey! You know how you guys like to claim that Egyptian history is accurate in order to debunk the bible?
Shouldn't this picture be accurate then?
That dude looks taller than your erectus!

Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow Weird comments, dude.
Matt SIngleton
"Homo erectus height
H. erectus had an average height of about 1.79 m (5 feet, 10 inches). Males were 20-30% larger than females. Homo erectus utilized diverse and sophisticated tools compared to H. habilis and together with H. ergaster was probably the first human species that matched the definition of hunter gatherer."
Top 10 Extinct Humans - Latest News & Reviews by Soft…

With the emergence of the genus Homo, we evolved from the stage of ape-man to that of…
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow I did?

"Homo erectus males averaged 5' to 5.5' tall."
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton yeah, 6 inches shorter
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton And I remember this being taught up to highschool.
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton neanderthals were supposed to be short.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow Neandertals average height was shorter than Homo sapiens.
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton Can you show me scientific proof that neanderthals and Homoerectus had a ht limit? you are already guilty of an inductive fallacy since you do not have the full populations of anyone of these evolutionary contenders.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow A height limit? What's that?
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton You have a hazy average of a sample of the theoretical population. you have no foundation of a species difference by the observation of hieght.
Bill Ludlow
Bill Ludlow We have an average height based on available data.
Matt SIngleton
Matt SIngleton that's understandable. Just not accurate enough to make height a species difference.

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

A new look at an Old Word: Why the reformation?

6.  Why the reformation?

           1. Canon
The Catholic doctrine taught that scripture was based on the authority of the Catholic Church, and therefore it was based on subjective opinion  Therefore, they allow the inclusion of the Apocrypha and consider their traditions on equal footings with the sacred text.  The Eastern Orthodox Church has a similar doctrine, their ultimate authority is in a democracy of bishops as opposed to Papal Authority, yet they do the same only adding on a few more apocryphal books.
"In some ways, the orthodoxy view of tradition is closer to Catholicism: for example, we can trace a two-source view of revelation back to key figures in both the east (Basil) and the west (Augustine)." pg. 96
"Acknowledging a personal prestige but not an institutional power for Peter, Orthodoxy vigorously insist upon the 'Ontological equality' not only of each bishop, but also of every church.  The succession of the apostolic church passes not unilaterally through the bishop of Rome, but through every church or the whole church, and through every Christian who like Peter confesses Christ as the Son of God.  Infallibility rest with the Church as whole, the 'pleroma' of all clergy and people"
  Daniel Clendenin Eastern Orthodox Christianity pg. 100-101

This seems to be a much more idealistic version of Roman Catholic understanding.  Like Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy combines the authority of scripture with the Authority of Tradition.  However, they interpret authority not according to the papacy  but according to the church as a whole.(eastern church as a whole)
   While this view sounds very idealistic and well intention-ed, it is untenable. The reason being is the inability to answer the question "What is the church?" Is it the church as defined by the Bible? Roman Catholic theology?  Eastern Orthodox theology? Protestant theology? Anabaptist/Baptist theology?  Cultic theology?
     Who is in this church, and who is infallible?  Are the Baptists infallible as well as the Catholics?  What does infallibility mean when everyone disagrees?   Even  the Eastern Orthodoxy has its disagreements as seen historically between the Antiochan and Alexandrian schools.

    This reminds me much of the Ecumenical worldview.  They claim to want unity but ultimately this is only possible at the cost of independence.  This I believe is the ultimate reason that the scriptures are under attack.  For in order to publish them, we must to attack the empire with independent "intelligent" religion.  Because independence stops unity so an Empire by nature is at odds with the Bible.

  If all the authority of the Spirit was to lay in the authority of the Bible as the reformers believed, then it could not have been an earthly authority.  Therefore, the reformers claimed the canon of scripture was designed by God.  They claimed that God would providentially preserve his words, and make them available to his Church.

             "We must make a great difference between God's Word and the word of man.  (A man's word is a little sound that flips into the air and soon vanishes); but the Word of God is greater than heaven and earth yea, greater than death and for it forms part of the power of God.  And endures everlasting.  We should therefore diligently study God's Word and know and assuredly believe that God Himself speaks unto you."
Martin Luther Table talk God's Word pg.44
   "That the Bible is God's Word and book I prove thus.  All things that have been and are, in the World, and the manner of their being are described in the first book of Moses on the creation; even as God made and shaped the world, so does it stand to this day.  Infinite potentates have raged against this book and sought to destroy and uproot it, King Alexander the Great, the princes of Egypt, and of Babylon, the monarchs of Persia, of Greece and of Rome, the emperors Julius and Augustus-but they nothing prevailed, they are all gone and vanished, while the book remains and will remain forever and ever perfect and entire as it was declared of the first.  Who has thus helped it-who has protected it against such mighty forces? No one, surely, but God himself who is the master of all things.  And tis no small miracle how God has so long preserved and protected his book, for the devil and the world are sure foes to it. I believe the Devil has destroyed many good books of the church, as aforetime, he killed and crushed many holy persons. The memory of whom has now passed away; but the Bible  he has feign to leave subsisting."
Martin Luther Table talk: God's word pg. 1

  " Although the light of nature and works of creation and providence do so far manifest the godliness, wisdom and power of God as to leave man inexcusable, yet they are not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is necessary unto salvation.  therefore it pleased the Lord as there was hardly a sophist or orator of any note who did not exert his printers against it there efforts proved unavailing.. The powers of the earth armed themselves for it's destruction, but all their attempts vanished into smoke.  When thus powerfully assailed on every side, how could it have resisted if it had only been trusted by human aide?  Nay, it's divine origin is more completely established by the fact, that when all human wishes were against it, it advanced it's own energy." John Calvin Institutes of the christian religion.
     If there were books of the Bible that were unavailable apparently then, God did not preserve them and they were not his words.  There were several evidential methods of affirming God's Word, but one of the main methods was that these would be used in the church  Born-again Christians would come to an agreement that the same spirit which they had felt working in their hearts in salvation was the same one inspiring the book they had been reading.  Through this long democratic congregational approach the canon would be testified to naturally. 
      Calvin therefore argued that it was the work of the Holy Spirit which illuminated our hearts to authenticate a passage, and that it would help it to illuminate if a passage was not authentic. This aided the reformers in their rejection of the apocrypha. The apocrypha was not only specific books of the canon. It was also passages from books like Daniel and Esther.  Therefore it is not just a wide canon issue, it is also dealt with manuscripts.  There are two passages of scripture today.(John 7:59-8:11 and Mark 16:9-20) That were in the Protestant Canon, that are no longer accepted by evangelical scholars today.  Calvin and Luther preached these passages as Holy Scripture.  If they were wrong, then the doctrine of illumination falls apart.  If the doctrine of illumination does fall apart, then the doctrine of sola scriptura does also.  If the doctrine of sola scriptura falls apart then the doctrine of salvation does as well.  Therefore, the Gospel sits upon the pillar of the scholarship of the Believer's Church.  It was this historic Protestant theology which was centered on the Word of God that led great Preachers like Dr. Tom Malone to confess their views of scripture as such.
    "We are often reminded that none of us have ever seen the original manuscript.  While this is true, yet God saw them and authored them.  He has preserved his word in one book -the Bible 'Forever O Lord, thy word is settled in Heaven.' Says psalm119:89.  We don't consult various translations by men to assure ourselves that we are reading the pure Word of God. The authorized King James Version is the Word of God.  God has preserved His Word, else inspiration would mean nothing to us.  Given the fact that it is inspired.  What would that mean to us if parts of the inspired word were either lost or hidden away in some ancient manuscript in a language most of us could not read?  We have now a perfect Bible.  We believe the Bible in it's original manuscripts is absolutely the pure and true Word of Almighty God.  We know that the Bible is true and that it is inspired as it claims to be. " Tom Malone: Tom Malone preaches on Certainties :The Bible is true   But many may say that Malone was an independent Baptist extremist(Not that he was really extreme only that he was independent Baptist).  No one mainstream like a Southern Baptist would preach that the Word of God has been supernaturally preserved.

     "As I hold in my hands a copy of the divine infallible, inerrant Word of God I cannot but be overwhelmed by it's miraculous preservation word for word jot for jot, title for tittle, through the centuries, the saints possessed by God's holy self-disclosure of himself.  We too, can be assured that the Bible we hold in our hands is the Word of God as the Lord wrote it, and that it contains what God would have in it, and that it does not contain that what God would refuse to make part of it."
W.A. Criswell Why I preach that the Bible Is literally true pg. 79

     Another issue is that Great Protestant preachers of old took the process of translating the Bible and interpreting it very seriously.
"I have heard men with prudish and mock modesty who would like to alter the Bible and (I almost blush at it) I have heard ministers alter God's Bible, because they were afraid of it.  Have you never heard a man say. 'He  that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not'  What does the Bible say?  -'shall be damned.' But that does not happen to be polite enough, so they say, 'shall be condemned'. Gentleman pull that velvet out of your mouths speak God's word ; we want none of your alterations.  I have heard men in prayer saying, make your calling and election sure; ' say 'Make your calling and salvation sure.   Pity they were not born  when God lived far far back that they might have taught God how to write.  Oh impudence beyond all bounds! Oh, full-blown self conceit!  To attempt to dictate to the alwise to teach to the Omniscient and  instruct the eternal." Charles Spurgeon now we see that many great pastors have upheld this belief but has there been any official doctrinal expression of this view of the preservation of scriptures?   Yes!
There is a consistent testimony among the reformed and Baptist confessions of faith to exactly that.

Westminster:VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God who have right unto, and interest in, the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and, through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope. 
1st London Baptist confession 1646
"VIII.The rule of this knowledge, faith, and obedience, concerning the worship of God, in which is contained the whole duty of man, is (not men's laws, or unwritten traditions, but) only the word of God contained [viz., written] in the holy Scriptures; in which is plainly recorded whatsoever is needful for us to know, believe, and practice; which are the only rule of holiness and obedience for all saints, at all times, in all places to be observed." 
2nd London Baptist confession article 1:8. The Old Testament in15 Hebrew which was the native language of the people of God of old, and the New Testament in Greek which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations, being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore16 authentic; so as in all controversies of religion, the church is finally to appeal to them17. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have a right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read18 and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they19 come, that the Word of God dwelling20 plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may have hope.
15Romans 3:2; 16Isaiah 8:20; 17Acts 15:15; 18John 5:39; 191 Corinthians 14:6, 9, 11, 12, 24, 28; 20Colossians 3:16
Orthodox creed(1678) Article 37"... Neither ought we since we have the scritures delivered  to us now, to depned upon, hearken to or regard the pretended immediate inspirations, dreams or prophetic predictions, by or from any person whatsoever. Lest we be deluded by them."
Philadelphia Baptist confession  The Old Testament in Hebrew, (which was the native language of the people of God of old),13
and the New Testament in Greek, which (at the time of the writing of it) was most generally known to the nations, being immediately inspired by God, and by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion, the church is finally to appeal to them.14 But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have a right unto; and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read15 and search them,16 therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar [ie. common] language of every nation, unto which they come,17 that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship Him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may hope.18

New Hampshire Confession of faith "
Of the Scriptures We believe that the Holy Bible was written by men divinely inspired, and is a perfect treasure of heavenly instruction (1); that it has God for its author, salvation for its end (2), and truth without any mixture of error for its matter (3); that it reveals the principles by which God will judge us (4); and therefore is, and shall remain to the end of the world, the true center of Christian union (5), and the supreme standard by which all human conduct, creeds, and opinions should be tried (6). 
Treatise of faith and practice of the free will baptist
"These are the Old and the New Testaments; they were written by holy men, inspired by the Holy Spirit, and are God's revealed word to man. They are a sufficient and infallible rule and guide to salvation and all Christian worship and service.  Since the Bible is the Word of God, it is without error in all matters upon which it speaks, whether history, geography, matters relating to science or any other subject.
Articles Put Forth by the Baptist Bible Union of America, 1923 
We believe that the Holy Bible was (a) written by men supernaturally inspired; (b) that it has truth without any admixture of error for its matter; and (c) therefore is, and shall remain to the end of the age, the only complete and final revelation of the will of God to man; the true center of Christian union and the supreme standard by which all human conduct, creeds and opinions should be tried.
(Explanatory)1. By "THE HOLY BIBLE" we mean that collection of sixty- six books, from Genesis to Revelation, which, as originally written, does not contain and convey the word of God, but IS the very Word of God
2. By "INSPIRATION" we mean that the books of the Bible were written by holy men of old, as they were moved by the Holy Spirit, in such a definite way that their writings were supernaturally inspired and free from error, as no other writings have ever been or ever will be inspired. 
Baptist faith and Message 1925 
We believe that the Holy Bible was written by men divinely inspired, and is a perfect treasure of heavenly instruction; that it has God for its author, salvation for its end, and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter; that it reveals the principles by which God will judge us; and therefore is, and will remain to the end of the world, the true center of Christian union, and the supreme standard by which all human conduct, creeds and religious opinion should be tried.
The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland formally states regarding the Westminister Confession - "The Authorised Version has had explicit and implicit Church sanction over many hundreds of years in various countries. It was the version used to support the documents of the Westminster Assembly both in their wording and in their proof texts, and so Presbyterian Churches claiming to hold to these standards ought to acknowledge the Authorised Version appropriately."

"We the church of Jesus Christ being regularly baptised upon the profession of our faith in Christ are convinced the concessive of associate churches. WE BELIEVE THAT THE SCRIPTURES OF THE OLD AND THE NEW TESTAMENTS AS TRANSLATED BY THE AUTHORITY OF KING JAMES TO BE THE WORDS OF GOD AND IS THE ONLY TRUE RULE OF FAITH AND PRACTICE."
The Association of Baptists 25th meeting 1830

Many assume that the association of the authorized KJV with the doctrine of preservation is just a new 20th century phenomena.  Well they are mistaken.

The KJV translator's held to preservation
"For when your Highnesse had once out of deepe judgment apprehended, how convenient it was, That out of the Originall sacred tongues, together with comparing of the labours, both in our owne and other forreigne Languages, of many worthy men who went before us, there should be one more exact Translation of the holy Scriptures into the English tongue"
"The Scriptures then being acknowledged to bee so full and so perfect, how can wee excuse our selves of negligence, if we doe not studie them, of curiositie, if we be not content with them? "
"Finally a fountaine of most pure water springing up unto everlasting life. And what marvaile? The originall thereof being from heaven, not from earth; the authour being God, not man; the enditer, the holy spirit, not the wit of the Apostles or Prophets; the Pen-men such as were sanctified from the wombe, and endewed with a principall portion of Gods spirit; the matter, veritie, pietie, puritie, uprightnesse; the forme, Gods word, Gods testimonie, Gods oracles, the word of trueth, the word of salvation, &c. the effects, light of understanding, stablenesse of persuasion, repentance from dead workes, newnesse of life, holinesse, peace, joy in the holy Ghost; lastly, the end and reward of the studie thereof, fellowship with the Saints, participation of the heavenly nature, fruition of an inheritance immortall, undefiled, and that never shall fade away: "
"If you aske what they had before them, truely it was the Hebrew text of the Olde Testament, the Greeke of the New. These are the two golden pipes, or rather conduits, where-through the olive branches emptie themselves into the golde. Saint Augustine calleth them precedent, or originall tongues; Saint Jerome, fountaines. The same Saint Jerome affirmeth, and Gratian hath not spared to put it into his Decree, That as the credit of the olde Bookes (he meaneth of the Old Testament) is to bee tryed by the Hebrewe Volumes, so of the New by the Greeke tongue, he meaneth by the originall Greeke. If trueth be to be tried by these tongues, then whence should a Translation be made, but out of them? These tongues, therefore, the Scriptures wee say in those tongues, wee set before us to translate, being the tongues wherein God was pleased to speake to his Church by his Prophets and Apostles. Neither did we run over the work with that posting haste that the Septuagint did,"

What about cults and pastors that abuse KJV Authority?
           One issue that I would like to bring up, which typically goes without saying is on Church discipline. Now while the Bible is perfect and, especially in the King James Bible, it is by implications Holy; this does not guarantee that a proponent of the authorized version is necessarily a holy person.  One preacher who emphasized the King James Version, and yet had many ungodly scandals was the minister Jack Hyles.  He was a great orator who had accumulated thousands of converts, yet he had a double life filled with adultery and many of his disciples were corrupted full of crimes and cover-ups.  Was this due to his use of the king James Bible?
I would argue that passages in the authorized version of the Bible could have held him to accountability and if a congregation is emboldened they can keep the affairs of the church in order.

1 Timothy 5:17 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward. 19 Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses. 20 Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear."
   A rogue pastor may rest in this passage, but only out of ignorance.  Because the honor is only due to "rule well" who are really laboring "in word and doctrine"/  While we are not quick to accuse elders, they are held accountable to "two or three witnesses".  If they commit sin in such a manner they are subject to rebuke openly before all the congregation.

Matthew 18: 15 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them."

Pastors are not allowed cultist authority.
Matthew 23:1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat: all therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, and love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. 10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. 11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted."
 Jesus clearly looked down upon any abuse of power. Nottice that no pastor is to be identified as a master or spiritual father which is the place of God.
1 peter 5:
feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; neither as being lords over God’s heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
Peter also teaches elders not to constrain or be motivated by greed.
As far back as the Old Testament it says..
Deuteronomy 5:
11 Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
  In conclusion, we should never see KJVO as a trigger for a perfect church. The devil is alive and well and we must seek Christ and find a body that has shown that it follows Christ, the head of the body.

2. The Jewish Masoretes

Tis true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly; but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers; because there hath not been an exact succession of Prophets since that time. And how firmly we have given credit to these books of our own nation, is evident by what we do. For during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold, as either to add any thing to them; to take any thing from them; or to make any change in them. But it is become natural to all Jews, immediately, and from their very birth, to esteem these books to contain divine doctrines; and to persist in them: and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them. For ’tis no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequently in time, to be seen to endure wracks, and deaths of all kinds, upon the theatres; that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws, and the records that contain them."
Flavius Josephus Against apion 1:8
  The word "Masorete" comes from the Jewish word "Massora" meaning "tradition".  So the Masoretic text is the "traditional text".  Though our earliest manuscripts date back to 1000AD.  It has been shown that the Masoretic text was around as early as the first century.
   "Until this time, written Hebrew contained only consonants, though a few consonants were used to indicate vowels.  The Masoretes developed the vowel system to preserve the written form of oral tradition, they received from earlier traditions.Encountering the Old Testament pg. 26-27

  This puts a high weight upon the shoulders of the Masoretes, because once we leave their text certain translations become mysterious.  This leaves us with the need for God's providence in the transmission of these texts.
   "The Masoretes worked carefully from the best available tradition of textual interpretation and made the task of later readers much easier.  Any scholar will admit the great debt he owes the Jewish experts." Lawrence Boadt

   The Masoretic method
"The Masoretes were well disciplined and treated the text 'with the greatest imaginable reverence, and devised a complicated system of safe guards against scribal slips.  They counted for example, the number of times each letter of the alphabet occurs in each book.  They pointed out the middle letter of the Penteteuch and the middle letter of the whole Hebrew Bible, and made even more detailed calculations than these.  Everything countable seems counted' says Wheeler Robinson and they made up mnemonics by which various totals be readily  remembered" 15/117

       Since the 1700's liberal critical scholars have employed a conspiracy theory called the "documentary hypothesis".  Assuming that the torah is cut-and-paste amalgamation of a minimum of 4 sources "JEDP".
        "Though one has only read the popular literature advancing the conclusions of the literary analytical approach might not realize it, even the most ardent advocate of the theory must admit that we have as yet not a single scrap of tangible, external evidence for either the existence or the history of the sources J.E.D.P." Bruce Waltke pg. 171 Evidence that demands a verdict volume II. Josh Macdowell
        "The importance of the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls can not be overstated in regard to confirming the accuracy of the Biblical manuscripts.  For example a scroll in Isaiah written in 150 B.C. found in nearly perfect condition was compared to a Masoretic Hebrew text dated A.D. 916 and found to be consistent with more than 1000 years!  In fact of the 166 words in chapter 53 of scroll in Isaiah only 17 letters show any possible signs of change and in the letters in question, the changes represent matters of spelling and stylistic changes, such as conjunctions.  Which would have no bearing on the meaning of the text.  The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the comparison of the text with later copies have verified beyond a shadow of a doubt that the Old Testament has accurately been handed down for centuries." Ralph O. Muncaster Examine the Evidence Exploring the Case for Christianity pg. 189-190

      The skeptic turned neo-evangelical, Ralph Muncaster is far from the KJVO camp and argues for the reliability of the LXX.  However, even he recognizes the accuracy of the Masoretic text.  We see here an obvious example as the Masoretes were nearly identical to the Dead Sea Scrolls.  While this author believes that the Masoretic text is superior to the Dead Sea Scrolls.  The fact that there is not much text to debate over shows the possibility of divine preservation of the Old Testament scriptures is not too far fetched after-all. 
Archaeological proof of Masoretic Accuracy  
in 143 cases of transliteration from Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian and Moabite into Hebrew and in 40 cases of the opposite, or 184 in all, the evidence shows that for 2300 to 3900 years the text of the proper names in the Hebrew Bible has been transmitted with the most minute accuracy. That the original scribes should have written them with such close conformity to correct philological principles is a wonderful proof of their thorough care and scholarship; further, that the Hebrew text should have been transmitted by copyists through so many centuries is a phenomenon unequalled in the history of literature.”32 He reasons further that since it can be shown that the text of other ancient documents has been reliably transmitted and that the text of the Old Testament has been accurately transmitted for the past 2,000 years, we may rightly suppose that the text of the Old Testament has been accurately transmitted from the very beginning  "           Dr. Robert Dick Wilson A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament pg.71,74-76

The unorthodoxy of the Essenes
  But what of that minority of difference, does not that prove that perfect preservation is contradictory?   The answer is simple enough but the audience is the key.  If I can find an answer then I can give the answer and win the debate.  But only those who stick around for the answer will get it. [huh?]
     In other words, the secular critic has to believe certain presuppositions before he could ever understand the truth. So I will prove that perfect preservation is possible. Then I will focus on the gospel and evangelism.  So the argument with the critic ends with similarity and the possible perfect preservation of the Masoretic text.  Yet for the believer or God-fearer I will argue for the superior of the masoretic text upon several factors.  For instance the essenes were barely know in Israel and we have only recently been made aware of their existence.  Therefore these groups have little authority for the official Jewish religion and they could have been a bit heretical.  Much like the Jehovah's witnesses and how much authority over the Christian religion.

"The non-biblical books of the Dead Sea Scrolls represent a wide range of books, many of which are the heretical teachings of a Jewish cult called the Essenes, which probably operated a monastic community nearby at Qumran. They considered themselves the true Israel and believed that God had called them to restore the Law of Moses and establish the kingdom of God on earth. Their leader was called “the Teacher of Righteousness.”" 
"They expected the new Temple to be operated by their Temple Book, which was a 28-foot scroll purporting to be God’s instruction to Israel for the operation of the temple. They expected an end-time prophet and two Messiahs to lead in the conquering of the Sons of Darkness (the Gentiles and apostate Jews). One was a priestly Messiah of the lineage of Aaron, known as the Interpreter of the Law, and the other was a “lay Messiah,” which they referred to as “the Branch of David” (Vermes, p. 188). This confusion came about from their misunderstanding of the Messianic prophecies. The Branch of David is actually the one and only Messiah, who came in the person of Jesus and was rejected, just as Isaiah 53 prophesied."

"The Essenes were ascetic and legalistic in the extreme. They wore their clothes until they fell to pieces and lived on a frugal diet. They wore white robes and took frequent ritual baths. Most were celibate but those who were married had to submit to the community’s rules even in matters of intimacy. If a husband and wife had intimate relations “against the rules,” they were put out of the community. They were fanatical sabbath keepers, not being allowed to assist an animal in labor or pull an animal out of a hole into which it had fallen, and if even a man fell into a pit or the water, no rope or ladder could be used in his rescue. They were secretive, with some of their books written in code, and members were forbidden to communicate the secret teachings to outsiders. "David Cloud

The Council of Jamnia
"Scholars debate actually what took place at Jamnia, but agree the council did not determine which books belonged in the Old Testament.  Rather it appears to have officially confirmed books most had recongized for generations.  In other words, the council officially endorsed certain books, but only confirmed what they believed had been true all along.Encountering the Old Testament pg 23                                                                              
Other competitors
to the Masoretic text                                                                                                                             a.   Septuagint)  This edition, I have a chapter dedicated to at the beginning of the book.                                                                                                                b.    Samaritan)  The Samaritan text had an obvious bias towards the endorsement of the Samaritan  people but follows the masoretic otherwise.    c.    Assyrian)  The Peshitta Old Testament essentially followed the LXX and probably used it as a text based for the Old Testament                                   d.    Aramaen) Like the Assyrian text we see manuscripts derived from the LXX denoting a distant relationship to the paleo-Hebrew.                                                                                                                      e.       Kittel's Biblia  Hebraica stuttgartensia 

Rudolph Kittel is going to some from the same old-line  liberal bias.  But even worse than this Kittel's Son was a nazi activist. 
He produced commentaries and histories of the Israelites and the Near East, but his most enduring work was his critical edition of the Hebrew scriptures, Biblia Hebraica, which has remained a standard text.  Kittel's son was the theologian and Nazi apologist Gerhard Kittel.[2]Theologians under Hitler (documentary) Rudolph Kittel Wikipedia
How could someone with allegiance to those who would massacre the Jewish race be the national scholar trusted with their sacred text. Kittel's Son followed His father as a Bible scholar if anyone could influence him not to be the apologist for the nazis it was Rudolph.                                                   f.    The Latin Vu lgate) The Latin vu lgate was the official  revision of Rome. It must be said that Jerome did go to the Hebrew in His Lati n translation of the scriptures. However, he still has plenty of errors crossed over from the Septuagint.  He also has some Catholic Bias.  We must remember that Jerome was under the employment of Pope Damasas, one of the key architects of the Roman Catholic religion.                    

one of the first deacons
Acts 6:
Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business 
  And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch:
            A center for hellenistic/Grecian Jews
19 Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only.
20 And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to Antioch, spake unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus. 21 And the hand of the Lord was with them: and a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord.
          The birthplace of Christians

25 Then departed Barnabas to Tarsus, for to seek Saul: 26 and when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.
         The church which launched the missions of Paul
1 Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away.  
   "Antioch was noted for it's more literal and historical hermeneutical method.  Of course the theologians and biblical scholars of antioch recognized allegory as one legitimate way of communicating truth, but they tended to resist finding spiritual meanings by claiming that a biblical story is allegorical unless there was some good reason to believe the story was intended as an allegory.  One notable example of this antiochene hermeneutical method is the great Christian scholar Theodore of Mopsuesta. (died 428), who was Antioch's leading biblical commentator.and theologian.  Theodore wrote many commentary's on scripture and always shied away from the allegorical interpretation unless clear evidence in the text itself directed him to do it." pg. 203 Roger Olson  The Story of Christian Theology    Now let us consider, would a group dedicated to every letter of a document be more or less concerned about the preservation of the document than a group who considered the words of the document nonspiritual and were more concerned with finding a hidden meaning within the text?  I think most people would consider the stricter group to be more concerned with preserving the text.
c. Ancient translation (Peshitta)  
     "The late Mar-yacob(Jacob) Eugene Manna Chaldean Roman Catholic Metropolitan of Armenia, a distinguished Aramaic scholars whose writings are in Aramaic, says the text which is Peshitta is without dispute even earlier than   the writings which came down from Bar-Dasan, who was living in the latter part of the 2nd century." It should be noted that this translation is  based upon the byzantine text.

4. Byzantine Manuscripts
A.  John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom had a reputation in this financially wealthy and corrupt area.  His training was in Antioch, though his theology was a bit monastic.
B.  Regional Superiority
           This issue has essentially been covered, yet once again there is close connection to Israel and the ancient letters written by Paul and others.
Easily 99% of the Greek Manuscripts that had been written were considered Byzantine in nature.  The area carried the same language of the apostles.  To write a deviant manuscript there would be much more difficult than in any other language.
d.  Defense of Nestorius  
             Nestorius was abruptly framed as a heretic by the alexandrine diocese because he denied a statement supporting Mariolatry.  Calling Mary "theotokos" the Mother of God. They claimed that he believed in 2 christs.  However, this was more of a political battle over which city would have more influence over Christendom.  In this era Alexandria would defeat Constantinople only to be trumped by Rome.
          Basically, when Nestorius altered a hymn calling Mary the mother of Christ as opposed to the mother of God.  The Alexandrians accused him of claiming that Christ was not God.  Nestorius emphasized the separation of the two natures to explain this. The bishop of Alexandria pressed him, how can there be two when there is one Jesus? Nestorius gave a poor illustration the natures being married where the two become one.  However, that would imply the heresy of adoption where Jesus became God.  Thus there would be a divine christ and a human Christ.
  The Alexandrines scheduled a disciplinary meeting with Rome at Constantinople and told Nestorius to come later, thus condemning him without his defense/  Nestorius did recant his statement but it was too late and the city lost it's prominence.

e. missions) The followers of Nestorius would spread the gospel as far east as china.
f.  The Paulicans)  This was a group similar with the Waldenses who had evangelical and baptist beliefs about the Bible.  Most Byzantine manuscripts found were written at the height of their movement.  God fearing martyrs are likely preservationists of the scrolls.  Like the Waldensian and many of the reformers they were accused of being Manichean's.  Yet it is clear that the Empires were prone to name-calling in court systems that start with the presumption of guilty before proven innocent. 
A.  Old Latin: "the African scribes did have a few manuscripts with obvious paraphrasing.  However they did have extremely ancient and close connections with the original Greek, more so than the alexandrian scholars."  It is apparent that the Waldeneses which lived in northern Italy preferred the Itala Bible which was a byzantine type.  Donatists would have used the African Itala Bibles.
B.  Gothic: The ancient Goths had been converted by a missionary with Arian leanings yet this missionary was relying on Byzantine manuscripts  even though the manuscript had more passages favoring the deity of Christ than the alexandrine.   

5.  Erasmus                      

"Details they are, yes, but because of these details we sometimes stumble and rover.  Philogogical trifling is necessary.  Why are we so precise as to our food our clothes, our money-matters and why does this accuracy displease us in divine literature alone?  He crawls along the ground they say he wearies himself about words and syllables!  Why do we slight any word of Him whom we venerate and worship under the name of the Word?  But be it so!  Let whoever wishes imagine that I have not been able to achieve anything better and out of sluggishness of mind  and coldness of heart or lack of erudition have taken this lowest task upon myself, it is still a christian idea to think that all work good that is done with pious zeal We bring along bricks but to build the temple of God."Erasmus quoted in   Johann Huizinga "Erasmus and the age of reformation" ch 13 pg. 111
Erasmus work lead to the reformation

     Some have accused Erasmus of simply being nothing more than a Roman Catholic trying to make money.  While it is true that he remained technically a member of the Roman Catholic Church.  It is obvious that his life's work was geared against Trent Style Catholicism of that Day.  Trent declared him a heretic.  Erasmus was paid his pention till death yet he did not ask for last rites.  He willed his possessions not to the catholic church but to local causes.  In some of his letters it is revealed that he was not a papist.
   "Luther now declared a heretic and summoned to appear at Augsburg, stands before the legate Cajetanusand refuses to recant.  Seething enthusiasm surrounds him .  Just about that time Erasmus writes to one of Luther's partisons, John Lang, invery favorable terms about his work. The thesis pleased everybody   "I see that the monarchy of the Pope at Rome, as it is now is a pestilence to christendom, but I do not know if it is expediant to touch that sore openly.  That would be a matter for princes, but I fear that these will ac t in concert with the Pope to secure part of the spoils.  I do not understand what possessed Eck to take arms with Luther!  The letter did not find it's way into any of the collections" Johann Huizinga chapter 16 Erasmus and the age of reformation  pg. 141                                                                  

    Of course he was born catholic like the rest of the reformers, and he was taught that his society was the kingdom of God the true church, even teachers like Augustine indoctrinated the reformers with the mindset that disagreement with them was with the Body of the Lord Jesus Christ.  So he had developed his own strategy as to how to change the rest of the world.  His strategy was to change the world quietly from within.
         "On the same day he writes to John Lang, one of Luther's freinds and followers, a short note not meant for publication:  I hope that the endeavors of yourself and your party will be succesful.  Here the papist rave violently..... All the best minds are rejoiced at Luther's boldness I do not doubt that he will be careful that things do not end in a quarrel of parties!......
"We shall never triumph over feigned Christians unless we first abolish the authority of the Holy See, and of it's satelites the Dominicans, Franciscans and the Carmelites.  But no one could attempt that without a serious tumult" johann Huizinga chapter 16 Erasmus and the age og reformation pg. 144

Erasmus was constantly pressured to write against Luther in order to prove he was still Catholic and retain his office.  For the most part Erasmus refused but later he finally gave in.  But as opposed to writing against a foundational issue like justification by faith alone or Sola Scriptura, he chooses to argue about the often debated mystery of predestination and free will. Since neither the Catholic church nor the reformers were totally unified on the issue, then it was obvious that Erasmus never criticized or rejected the reformation, even when he was supposed to.

Personal reading of the textus receptus leads to the Anabaptist movement.
Ulrich Zwingli would focus on the Textus Receptus
"With Erasmus Greek New Testament and his own linguistic ability, he was able to concentrate on the text without subservience to traditional interpretations from Erasmus, Zwingli learned to seek the simple meaning of the Biblical text and to present Jesus as the model of the Christian life" Carter Lindberg The European reformations pg. 170
It is common knowledge that the Anabaptists were the most consistently biblical group in the early reformation.  They were the first Reformers do away with the infant baptism and to preserve a consistent Christian worldview.  This group read directly from the textus receptus in their worship.  If Erasmus was such a staunch Catholic, how could his writings produce such a result? Obviously this was not the case.                                                                                                                                                                  

6. Reformers:
It is important to remember the Catholic  Church training since the Reformers was acquainted with the vulgate manuscripts and Alexandrine Readings  
  1. Luther)   Luther was trained in Law, Philosophy and theology, he was formally recognized by the Catholic church in Wittenberg as a Professor of the Scriptures.  He taught through both the Old and New Testament.  He is known for his translation of the Bible into German and many german Christians today have the same fidelity to it as English speakning fundamental christians to the KJV.
    Beza)  Theodore Beza was a lawyer and had published many latin poems, he had a high reputation as a literary critic prior to coming to faith.
    Also it is said that he had an interest in the Waldenses Christians.
        " In 1557, Beza took a special interest in the Waldensians of Piedmont, Italy, who were being harassed by the French government. On their behalf, he went with William Farel to Bern, Zürich, Basel, and Schaffhausen, then to Strasburg, Mömpelgard, Baden, and Göppingen. In Baden and Göppingen, Beza and Farel made a declaration concerning the Waldensians' views on the sacrament on May 14, 1557. The written declaration clearly stated their position and was well received by the Lutheran theologians, but was strongly disapproved of in Bern and Zurich."
    This is in accord with Beza's famous Greek Manuscript, the codex Bezae.
    "The place of origin of the codex is still disputed; both France and southern Italy have been suggested" L. Neville Birdsall, The Geographical and Cultural Origin of Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis: A Survey of the Status Qyaestionnis, Mainly from Palaeographical Standpoint, in: Studien zum Text zur Ethik des Neuen Testaments: Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstag von Heinrich Greeven, ed. Wolfgang Schrage, Beihelfe zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 47 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 186), 102-114.
  2. Jump up ^ D. C. Parker, Codex Bezae: An Early Christian Manuscript and Its Text (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992 
             What is especially important here is the fact that the 2 disputed locations are the 2 disputed original locations of the voudois/waldenses.  Those who hold to an ancient origin of this church  side with Northern Italy where it is rumored that the Waldenses received this text from Antiochan Missionaries.                               

7.  Why English and why King James?
      The elephant in the biblical room is why the most famous Bible, and for that matter the most famous book which is reputed to be the Holy book of God, written in the language of the British and not in the Hebrew or Greek?  If Latin Failed, why would English succeed?
Typically, we answer that it is only due to our right to translate the Bible alongside the coincidence of British dominance throughout history.  Yet if we hold to an omniscient Sovereign and providential God who is in control and who has a plane there has to be something more than chaos.
Joseph of Arimathea) there is a massive amount of folklore claiming that Jospeph Arimathea, famous in the Bible for providing the Crucified Lord with a new unused empty tomb.  Was in fact Jesus' great uncle through Mary.  Legend has it that he was a tin man in the ancient SE mining out of Cornwall and Retiring as missionary in Glastenbury England.  Ancient British History is hotly disputed. and this is connected to the academic wars regarding the legends of King Arthur. ( if Correct, there would be 2 Arthurs 2oo years apart and several claims involving Joseph of Arimathea and the Holy Grail.)
This would be too long an issue to bring up for this book.  But there is a long apoetage starting with this tale.
     In terms of bishops the 1st bishop in Britain is officially said to be Aristabulus, this was done around the time of the destruction of the temple and many of the Jews were fleeing their homeland.  Many Jews had developed a good working relationship with Britain due to there Tin Mines.  Christianity was planted there very early.  It is said that this nation was first to recognize Christ as their national lord by King Lucius in AD 170.
  Christianity this early was not Subject to the Roman Catholic Papacy.  In Fact all the way down to St. Patrick there was not a recognition of the Pope.  Britain was visited by Catholicism in 600AD as a result of the Work of Augustine of Canteberry.
   Many of these early Christians would survive the first millennia of Christianity with a Primitive Faith and were known as the Culdees. at the same time that there ranks were dying out, the light of the Morning star of the reformation was shown.  John Wycliffe, a British Catholic Professor who turned His back on His clerical system in favor of bringing the Word of God to the common people.  His disciples the Lollards spread the Word of God across England far and wide
"John Wycliffe died of his stroke on the last day of the year. The religious authorities had never excommunicated him because they feared public opinion--the people loved John and his fame was international. So he was buried in consecrated soil. But about thirty years later, the Council of Constance revenged itself on his criticism by condemning his teachings and ordering his bones to be dug up and burned.
But the burning of such a man's bones could not end his influence. As John Foxe said in his book of martyrs, "though they digged up his body, burnt his bones, and drowned his ashes, yet the Word of God and the truth of his doctrine, with the fruit and success thereof, they could not burn; which yet to this day...doth remain.""
It is quite a strange thing to think that in England they would prosecute a child for praying the Lords prayer in English.  Yet this was the persecution of that day and era.  Those who supported Wycliff were known as the Lollards.  In a few centuries a Scholar would take the blood chair in honor of his predecessor.  His name was William Tyndale.  Tyndale would raise the bar as opposed to Wycliffe's translation of the latin text, Tyndale would translate from the Greek.  and eventually the Old Testament would come out from the Hebrew. ale was also executed in a pit of fire for his Love of God's Words.  With his dying breath he cried "God Open the King of England's eyes!!"  The martyr's prayers were answered.
Eventually bible translation became legal.
The king James version would be produce in 1611.  It was only titled the Holy Bible. 70% of the English words were penned from Jon Wycliffe first.  90% of the English Words were penned by William Tyndale.

The translators
The Westminster company

Dr. Lancelot Andrews
Dr. John Overall
Dr. Hadrian Saravia
Dr. Richard Clarke
Dr. John Laifield
Dr. Robert Tighe
Francis Burleigh
Geoffrey King
Richard Thompson
Dr. William bedwell
The cambridge company

Edward lively
Dr. john Richardson
Dr. Lawrence Chderton
Francis Dillingham
Dr. Roger Andrews
Thomas Harrison
Dr. Robert Spaulding
Dr. Andrew Bing
The Oxford Company
Dr. John Harding
Dr. John Reynolds
Dr. Thomas Holland
Dr. Richard Kilby
Dr. Miles Smith
Dr. Richard Brett
Daniel Fairclough
The 2nd Oxford company
Dr. Miles Smith
Dr. Thomas Ravis
Dr. George Abbot
Dr. Richard Eedes
Dr. Giles Thompson
Sir henry Savile
Dr. John Peryn
Dr. Ralph Ravens
Dr. John Harmar
The 5th company at Westminster
Dr. William Barlow
Dr John Spencer
Dr. Roger Fenton
Dr. Ralp Hutchinson
William Dakins
Michael Rabbet
Thomas[?] Sanderson
  1. The first instructed them to make the "Bishop's Bible," so called, the basis of their work, altering it no further than fidelity to the originals required…
  2. The second rule requires that the mode then used of spelling the proper names should be retained as far as might be.
  3. The third rule requires "the old ecclesiastical words to be kept," such as "church" instead of "congregation."
  4. The fourth rule prescribes, that where a word has different meanings, that is to be preferred which has the general sanction of the most ancient Fathers, regard being had to "the propriety of the place, and the analogy of faith."
  5. The fifth rule directs that the divisions into chapters be altered as little as may be.
  6. The sixth rule, agreeably to Dr. Reynolds's wise suggestion at Hampton Court, prohibits all notes or comments, thus obliging the translators to make their version intelligible without those dangerous helps.
  7. The seventh rule provides for marginal references to parallel or explanatory passages.
  8. The eighth rule enjoins that each man in each company shall separately examine the same chapter or chapters, and put the translation into the best shape he can. The whole company must then come together, and compare what they have done, and agree on what shall stand. Thus in each company, according to the number of members, there would be from seven to ten distinct and carefully labored revisions, the whole to be compared, and digested into one copy of the portion of the Bible assigned to each particular company.
  9. The ninth rule directs, that as fast as any company shall, in this manner, complete any one of the sacred books, it is to be sent to each of the other companies, to be critically reviewed by them all.
  10. The tenth rule prescribes, that if any company, upon reviewing a book so sent to them, find any thing doubtful or unsatisfactory, they are to note the places, and their reasons for objecting thereto, and send it back to the company from whence it came. If that company should not concur in the suggestions thus made, the matter was to be finally arranged at a general meeting of the chief persons of all the companies at the end of the work. Thus every part of the Bible would be fully considered, first, separately, by each member of the company to which it was originally assigned; secondly, by that whole company m concert; thirdly, by the other five companies severally; and fourthly, by the general committee of revision. By this judicious plan, each part must have been closely scrutinized at least fourteen times.
  11. The eleventh rule provides, that in case of any special difficulty or obscurity, letters shall be issued by authority to any learned man in the land, calling for his judgment thereon.
  12. The twelfth rule requires every bishop to notify the clergy of his diocese as to the work in hand, and to "move and charge as many as, being skilful in the tongues, have taken pains in that kind, to send his particular observations" to some one of the companies.
  13. The thirteenth rule appoints the directors of the different companies.
  14. The fourteenth rule names five other translations to be used, "when they agree better with the text than the Bishop's Bible." These are Tyndale's; Matthew's, which is by Tyndale and John Rogers; Coverdale's; Whitchurch's, which is "Cranmer's,'' or the "Great Bible," and was printed by Whitchurch; and the Geneva Bible. The object of this regulation was to avoid, as far as possible, the suspicious stamp of novelty. To the careful observance of these injunctions, which, with the exception of the first five, are highly judicious, is to be ascribed much of the excellence of the completed translation.*Report of the Committee on Versions, made to the Board of Managers of the American Bible Society, and adopted May 1st, 1851.

    Unfortunately, there is too much material to wedge into this book and the subject requires a book of it's own.  I suggest "The translators Revived" by Alexander McClure Copywrite 1858
    When you look at hundreds of bible versions you have a mysterious series of unknown translators.  Often affected by the evolutionary theory and textual criticism, sometimes members of heretical cults and even rogue political parties (nazis, Communists). Some going so far as to deny Christ and often translating for the shear motivation of Money.
      Now while I an sure there may be a sinner or false teaching somewhere among these men. What you will find overwhelmingly is.  Linguistic scholarship at the peek of a literary society, Devotion to Christ and a Christian worldview no influence of darwinism or marxism or atheism.  Simply put the ingredients of a superior translation.

    The Bible and Common law

    The Foundation of English Common Law
    Anglo – Saxon law
    The law of the Anglo – Saxons prior to the invasion of the Normans in 1066 A. D. was a legal political system similar to the Old Testament Israel. In their decentralized government, a head of ten families was called a “tithing man.” The head of fifty families was a “vil-man”. The head of a hundred families was named a “hundred-man” while the head of a thousand families was known as an “eolderman”. The term "eolderman" may be related to the Scandinavian term “jarl.” Eventually the “eolderman” became known as an “earl” and governed a region called a “shire.” A “shire reef” was his assistant and became known as a “sheriff.”

    The Code of Alfred the Great
    Alfred the Great codified biblical law throughout his kingdom. He became known as the "Father of English common law."
    “The Laws of Alfred (about A. D. 890) start with a recitation of the Ten Commandments and excerpts from the Mosaic Law; and in restating and revising the native Anglo – Saxon laws. Alfred includes such great principles as: ‘doom (i.e. judge) every evenly; doom not one doom to the rich, another to the poor, nor doom one to your friend, another to your foe.’” (Cf. Exodus 23: 1-3; Deut. 1:16 – 18)
    Ecclesiastical law
    The law of the church known as ecclesiastical law was an important influence on the creation of English common law. The Bible was the foundation of law of an independent church court system.
    Jewish law
    The church prohibited money lending (based on interpretation of various passages of Scripture) during the Middle Ages. Jewish people were not bound by the interpretations of passages of Scripture by the church for they interpreted the passages differently. The Jews were almost the only people from whom money could be borrowed during the Middle Ages. Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon (Maimonides) codified Jewish law which formed the basis of commercial law in England. Consequently, this was based on Jewish interpretation of passages from the Old Testament.

English common law - American law

English common law is the most significant source of American law.
The Scriptural principles of Biblical law were the basic foundation of English common law. The Christian English jurist, Sir William Blackstone published his Commentaries which were a compilation of English common law. In the ten years prior to the American War for Independence; nearly 2500 copies of his commentaries were purchased and widely read in the American colonies. The English common law scholar Coke was respected and more widely read in the American colonies than in England.
Furthermore, the American colonists wanted to “biblicize” their legal and judicial systems further. The early colonists saw themselves as the “new Israel” whom God planted in a "Promised land".
Attempts to conform civil law to biblical code can be found in the “Massachusetts Body of Liberties” and in the “New Haven Colony Laws.”                                   
KJV and American culture   
             "Every year two million visitors file past the famed Liberty Bell in Philadelphia. As they look at the cracked bell, they read these words: “Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants thereof.” The inscription comes from the Bible (Leviticus 25:10).
When presidents of the United States raise their right hand to take the oath of office at their inauguration, they place their left hand on a copy of the Bible.
When Martin Luther King stood on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C., and delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, he said, “We will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” Those words come directly from the Bible (Amos 5:24).
Why does the Bible appear in these places? Because it is the central and foundational book of Western culture, including American culture. Everywhere we turn in the cultural past, we find the Bible. We cannot avoid it if we tried, and we will not understand our past without a knowledge of the Bible.
George Lindbeck, former professor of theology at Yale University, once described the cultural position of the Bible in American culture this way: “Its stories, images, conceptual patterns, and turns of phrase permeated the culture from top to bottom. This was true even for illiterates and those who did not go to church, for knowledge of the Bible was transmitted not only directly by its reading, hearing, and ritual enactment, but also indirectly by an interwoven net of intellectual, literary, artistic, folkloric, and proverbial traditions. There was a time when every educated person, no matter how professedly unbelieving or secular, knew the actual text from Genesis to Revelation”
The evidences of this cultural influence permeated every sphere of life. Theodore Roosevelt correctly observed of the English Bible that “no other book of any kind ever written in English has ever so affected the whole life of a people.”
The Supreme Court
1890: The Supreme Court said, “…the practice of reading THE KING JAMES VERSION OF THE BIBLE, COMMONLY AND ONLY RECEIVED AS INSPIRED AND TRUE by the Protestant religious sects…” (Decision of the Supreme Court of the State of Wisconsin Relating to the Reading of the Bible in Public Schools, 1890). Truman1945: President Harry S. Truman said, “THE KING JAMES VERSION OF THE BIBLE IS THE BEST THERE IS OR EVER HAS BEEN OR WILL BE, and you get a bunch of college professors spending years working on it, and all they do is take the poetry out of it.
(President Harry S. Truman, quoted in, Merle Miller, Plain Speaking: An Oral Biography of Harry S. Truman, 1985)

  President Ronald Reagan defended the King James Version of the Bible!                 
"What would you say if someone decided Shakespeare's plays, Charles Dicken's novels, or the music of Beethoven could be rewritten & improved?
"I'll be right back. . .
"Writing in the journal "The Alternative", Richard Hanser, author of The Law &; the Prophets and Jesus: What Manner of Man Is This?, has called attention to something that is more than a little mind boggling. It is my understanding that the Bible (both the Old &; New Testaments) has been the best selling book in the entire history of printing.
"Now another attempt has been made to improve it. I say another because there have been several fairly recent efforts to quote "make the Bible more readable &; understandable" unquote. But as Mr. Hanser so eloquently says, "For more than 3 1/2 centuries, its language and its images, have penetrated more deeply into the general culture of the English speaking world, and been more dearly treasured, than anything else ever put on paper." He then quotes the irreverent H. L. Mencken, who spoke of it as purely a literary work and said it was, "probably the most beautiful piece of writing in any language."
"They were, of course, speaking of The Authorized Version, the one that came into being when the England of King James was scoured for translators & scholars. It was a time when the English language had reached it's peak of richness &; beauty.
"Now we are to have The Good News Bible which will be in, "the natural English of everyday adult conversation." I'm sure the scholars and clergymen supervised by the American Bible Society were sincerely imbued with the thought that they were taking religion to the people with their Good News Bible, but I can't help feeling we should instead be taking the people to religion and lifting them with the beauty of language that has outlived the centuries.
"Mr. Hanser has quoted from both the St. James Version & the Good News Bible some well known passages for us to compare. A few thousand years ago Job said "How forcible are right words!" [Job 6:25] The new translators have him saying "Honest words are convincing." That's only for openers. There is the passage [Eccl. 1:18], "For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow". Is it really an improvement to say instead, "The wiser you are, the more worries you have; the more you know the more it hurts."
"In the New Testament, in Matthew, we read "The voice of the one crying in the wilderness. Prepare ye the way." [Matthew 3:3] The Good News version translates that, "Someone is shouting in the desert. Get the road ready." It sounds like a straw boss announcing lunch hour is over.
"The hauntingly beautiful 23rd Psalm is the same in both versions, for a few words, "The Lord is my shepherd" but instead of continuing "I shall not want" we are supposed to say "I have everything I need."
"The Christmas story has undergone some modernizing but one can hardly call it improved. The wondrous words "Fear not: for; behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy" has become, "Don't be afraid! I am here with good news for you."
"The sponsors of the Good News version boast that their Bible is as readable as the daily paper – and so it is. But do readers of the daily news find themselves moved to wonder, "at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth"? Mr. Hanser suggests that sadly the "tinkering & general horsing around with the sacred texts will no doubt continue" as pious drudges try to get it right. "It will not dawn on them that it has already been gotten right."
"This is Ronald Reagan. Thanks for listening." --— aired September 6, 1977
On another occasion he also said the following: “Indeed, it is an incontrovertible fact that all the complex and horrendous questions confronting us at home and worldwide have their answer in that single book." --— Ronald Reagan
                King James=King Jacob
  Now what we call today the King James Bible was only known as the Holy Bible for centuries and title "the Authorized Version" later.  So some Christians who have the misperception of the translation being centered around this King historically false and inaccurate.  But the King authorized the production of this translation was not unbiblical in his nature.  He was raised reformed in Scotland.  The name James is a derivative of Jacob.  Jacob in the Bible would become Israel. Israel of course is the most blessed of all nations being God's chosen people.  The rumors of King James being homosexual are unsubstantiated. King James was married with children and had published love poems to his wife.  The rumors were started 15 years after his death by his enemies.  Homosexual propagandist have tried to spread the idea of homosexuality upon world leaders for the ancient practice of having their body guards sleep in their beds. mes and Abraham Lincoln among others are accused of such.  But in reality the guards would sleep in the bed near the door, either to be a decoy or to be a last guard for the king.
  The KJV and the english language.
"Any day now the English-speaking world will start to celebrate a number one bestseller of unprecedented literary significance. That sounds like an oxymoron, but it's actually a quatercentenary. I refer not to the collected works of William Shakespeare but a contemporary rival volume that has not only sold non-stop for 400 years but also shaped our imaginative landscape: the King James Bible.
As well as selling an estimated 1bn copies since 1611, the KJB went straight into our literary bloodstream like a lifesaving drug. Whenever we put words into someone's mouth, or see the writing on the wall, or go from strength to strength, or eat, drink and be merry, or fight the good fight, or bemoan the signs of the times, or find a fly in the ointment, or use words such as "long-suffering", "scapegoat" and "peacemaker" we are unconsciously quoting the KJB. More astounding, compared to Shakespeare's prodigal 31,000-word vocabulary, the KJB works its magic with a lexicon of just 12,000 words." Robert McCrum

Modern defenders
F.H.A Scrivener: A textual critic on the 1885 revision comittee who was sympathetic to the case of Dean John Burgeon.e went on to produce and edition of the textus receptus with the goal of conformity to the textual decisions of the King James translators.  ( though some argued he did not accomplish this 100%) The KJV made an unrecorded collation of Beza and Stephanus' Textus Receptus editions.
Robert L. Dabney) A famous Southern American Presbyterian theologian, gave a strong defense for the traditional text.  His systematic theology is still in use by reformed theologians today.
Dean John Burgeon) A highly talented scholar from Oxford University leading the desenting opinion against the Westcott and Hort text. and the revised version.  His defenses of the ending of Mark and the Byzantine text were so convicting that the only way for modern scholarship to refute them is to simply omit them from the conversation. One challenge I would like to lay to the reader is to find a single author against the preservationist position who has thoroughly gone through Burgeons work and conclusively refutes him.  You may find statements denouncing him, but arguments against him are untouched.
Edward Hills: A 1st class textual critic who obtained his doctorate from Harvard.  Ironically, he would have obtained this PHD from the University of Chicago but when the institution was made aware of his views, they refused to let him continue his education there. Author of "The King Version defended"
Philip Mauro: A popular Lawyer in his day who gave very convincing arguments for the faith in the fundamentalist classic "The Fundamentals" with R.A.Torrey.  Later on he gave his support tot he Authorized King James Version in this important debate.
Wilbur Pickering: A Bible Scholar out of Dallas Theological Seminary.  Famous for his numbering of the text to prove the superiority of the byzantine text over the Alexandrian texts.
Jay P. Green: A modern KJV text defender.  Translator behind the traditional text based KJV2. His highest claim to fame would be the production of the "Interlinear Bible Hebrew Greek English" composed of the Masoretic Text, textus receptus and King james version with an ultra literal translation.
D.A.Waite: Dr. Donald Waite is a Baptist scholar who has written in the defense of the Received Text for many years. He is President of the Dean Burgon Society and Director of Bible for Today ministries. He has earned a B.A. in classical Greek and Latin;(trained under A.T. Robertson) a Th.M. with high honors in New Testament Greek Literature and Exegesis; an M.A. and Ph.D. in Speech; a Th.D. with honors in Bible Exposition; and he holds both New Jersey and Pennsylvania teacher certificates in Greek and Language Arts. He taught Greek, Hebrew, Bible, Speech, and English for more than 35 years in nine schools. He has produced more than 700 studies on the Bible and other subjects.
Zane Hodges: A famous theologian and bible scholar who supports the byzantine manuscript or majority text.  Along with Aarthur Farstad helped in the construction of the NKJV and opened the text debate back open for evangelical circles.
Floyd Nolan Jones: An ordained Southern Baptist Minister who recieved his doctorate from Oxford University, one of the premeir defenders of the traditional text with  ery scholarly critical work on the LXX/Septuagint.
Dr. Peter Ruckman: A legendary independent Baptist preacher from florida.  Ruckman was scored a genius level I.Q.and got his P.H.D. from Bob Jones University.  Quite infamous for his antics and opinions Dr. Ruckman nevertheless made his mark writing commentaries, defending the KJV, and running a small Bible college in Pensecola Florida.
Henry Morris) Dr. Morris is most famous as the architect of the modern Creation Science movement.  A hydrologist and master of many sciences would later in life devote his time to Biblical scholarship. One of his works was title "A creationist defense of the King James Bible"
David W. Daniels) Author/Researcher with Chick Publications where he helps in global evangelistic efforts.  Daniels studied linguistics and recieved his MDiv. at Fuller Theological Seminar and studied linguistics with Wycliffe Bible translators Summer Institute: and he has worked many years in the field of bible translation.  He has written many books defending the KJV and is currently documenting the origin and authenticity of Codex Sinaiticus, including the claim that it is actually an 1800's document made by Constantine Simonides.
   There is a natural fidelity to the King James Bible
   "The Revised Version, which has been before the public for tweenty-seven years gives no indication of becoming in any general sense the people's Bible of the English Speaking World.  The discovery of the Sinaitic MS  and the labors in the field of such scholars as Greisbach, Lachman, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Winer, Alford, Westcott and Hort have cleared the Textus Receptus of Minor in accuracies while confirming in a remarkable the general accuracy of the Authorized Version of that text" C.I. Scofield "Introduction" The Scofield Reference Bible
Upon reading this introduction, and realized the vast fortune in Bible sales they lost, the liberal scholars must have experienced Great Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth!

             Time gives us a look at what was going on in the conservative mind at the time of the twentieth century.  Scofield actually gave the European critics the benefit of the doubt in regards to Westcott and Hort.  They gave up theological territory, which would hurt them in the long run.  Yet at the same time they won the Battle of the Bble Versions almost by default.  It is obvious the Bible Critics want to do more damage than what had been accomplished by the revision.  Yet they failed in doing this so much so that they were labeled not as attackers but as defenders because their two popular MS destroyed the idea of the bible as pure myths.  They also failed so much that scofield was undeterred in having his Study Bible in authorized King James Version.  I wished the turn of the century fundamtalist Scholars had paid more serious attention to the long term effects of the ground which they gave up.  But they did preserve their generation. But as for our generation that time is now!