Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Who is the New Testament Church?

Is it the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day saints?
It doesn't seem so. The mormon faith came from the teachings of the self proclaimed prophet Joseph Smith. Jesus taught that He would build His Church.

Matthew 16:16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 16:17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed [it] unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. 16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 16:20 Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.
Matthew 16:16-20

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day saints teaches that the church at some point died.
But Jesus said he would be with us to the end of the world.
28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen.
Matthew 28:19-20
Has the world ended yet?
The church will remain.
3:21 Unto him [be] glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.
Ephesians 3:20-23

Is it the Roman Catholic Church?
No because first of all Christ is the head of his church.
1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all [things] he might have the preeminence.
Colossians 1:18
Peter viewed himself as just a minister of the gospel
5:1 The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: 5:2 Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight [thereof], not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; 5:3 Neither as being lords over [God's] heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
1 Peter 5:1-3

Roman Catholicism was initially headed by Constantine
Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; his reign was certainly a turning point for the Christian Church. In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan, which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians) and returned confiscated Church property. Though a similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius, then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy, Galerius' edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them.[196]

"Scholars debate whether Constantine adopted his mother St. Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life.[197] Constantine would retain the title of pontifex maximus until his death, a title emperors bore as heads of the pagan priesthood, as would his Christian successors on to Gratian (r. 375–83). According to Christian writers, Constantine was over 40 when he finally declared himself a Christian, writing to Christians to make clear that he believed he owed his successes to the protection of the Christian High God alone.[198] Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g. exemption from certain taxes), promoted Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.[199] His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Old Saint Peter's Basilica."
Wikipedia "Constantine I"

The Pontifex Maximus (Latin, "greatest bridge-maker") was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum). This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus, it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian[1] (reigned 375-383) who, however, then decided to omit the words "pontifex maximus" from his title.[2][3]

Centuries later, after the word "pontifex" had become a term used for Christian bishops,[4] including the Bishop of Rome,[5] the title of "Pontifex Maximus" was applied within the Roman Catholic Church to the Pope as its chief bishop. It is not included in the Pope's official titles,[6] but appears on buildings, monuments and coins of popes of Renaissance and modern times

"[edit] Origins during the Regal Period
The Collegium Pontificum (College of Pontiffs) was the most important priesthood of ancient Rome. The foundation of this sacred college and the office of Pontifex Maximus is attributed to the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius [7]. It is safe to say that the collegium was tasked to act as advisers of the rex (king) in all matters of religion. The collegium was headed by the pontifex maximus and all the pontifices held their office for life. Prior to its institution, all religious and administrative functions and powers were naturally exercised by the king. Very little is known about this period of Roman history regarding the pontiffs as the main historical sources are lost and some of the events from this period are regarded as semi-legendary or mythical. Most of the records of ancient Rome were destroyed when it was sacked by the Gauls in 387 BC. Accounts from this early period come from excerpts of writings made during the Republican Period."

Wikipedia "pontifex maximus"

It was only later that the Pope's had been given headship over the catholic church. They would then be referred to by this title.

The Popes however do not rightfully have the authority they claim.
A. Because the church at Rome was not founded by Peter
When the Apostle Paul wrote his letter to the Romans He did not identify a specific organized church, only those "called to be saints". These were probably the jews and proselytes converted at the day of penticost.(acts 2:10)
Paul states however to the Romans that he would not preach at a place already settled by an apostle.
15:20 Yea, so have I strived to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man's foundation: 15:21 But as it is written, To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see: and they that have not heard shall understand.
Romans 15:20-21
Also Peter's ministry centered around Jewish believers
2:8 (For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:)
Galatians 2:8
So it is extremely doubtful that Peter was the 1st Bishop of Rome. In the last century Archaeologists have questioned the traditional grave of Peter in Rome since it was a pagan cemetery and archaeologists in 1950 found what they claim to be the body of Peter in Caesarea(northern Israel)

Roman Catholicism did not hold to the New Testament as shown by the obvious

a. Because the Apostles taught believers baptism

16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
Mark 16:15-16
How on earth could an infant who does not evn know words be baptized if the gospel of Mark be true?

8:35 Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same scripture, and preached unto him Jesus. 8:36 And as they went on [their] way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch said, See, [here is] water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? 8:37 And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. 8:38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. 8:39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he went on his way rejoicing. 8:40 But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.
Acts 8:35-40
Here we see an extremely portrayal of Believers baptism. Now modern liberal scholars reject vrs.37. However it should be remembered that Roman catholics originally accept this passage since it was printed in two manuscripts under Catholic authority. The Complutesian Polyglot and the Textus Receptus.

10:40 Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly; 10:41 Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, [even] to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. 10:42 And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God [to be] the Judge of quick and dead. 10:43 To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. 10:44 While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. 10:45 And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. 10:46 For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, 10:47 Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we? 10:48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.
Acts 10:40-48
So Peter (suposedly the first Pope) preaches a message that would get a priest in trouble (forgiveness by faith with no mention of works). Then the Holy spirit intervenes and they are immersed in the Holy Ghost without water baptism!

3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: 3:19 By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; 3:20 Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. 3:21 The like figure whereunto [even] baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: 1 Peter 3:18-21
Here again we see Peter(the 1st Pope!) preaching atonement for the unjust(mankind)He uses the the global flood (an obvious symbol of immersion)and says it is a symbol and that which saves is not some holy water but a cleared conscience. Case Closed.

B. Because the roman church claims superiority over the BiBLE.
The church in the New Testament is the followers of Christ. Not the other way around.
3:1 This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you; in [both] which I stir up your pure minds by way of remembrance: 3:2 That ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour: 3:3 Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, 3:4 And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as [they were] from the beginning of the creation. 3:5 For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: 3:6 Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished:
2 Peter 3:1-6

5:1 The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed: 5:2 Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight [thereof], not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; 5:3 Neither as being lords over [God's] heritage, but being ensamples to the flock. 5:4 And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. 5:5 Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all [of you] be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.
1 Peter 5:1-5

c. Because the Roman Catholic Church supresses the Bible
It has been historically illegal for Roman catholics to read the scriptures for themselves. Only now that there schools teach scepticism of the scriptures will the church allow the congregation to hear it. Throughout the centuries the catholics have had the practice of burning Bibles. They still practice this act in deeply traditional catholic nations to this day.

D. Because the Roman Catholic church anathematizes those who seek Christ independently for salvation
The council of trent declared 115 anathemas against the protestants. (to anethematize someone, declares them to be sentenced in Hell)Many do not realize that Vatican II teaches the doctrines of TRENT are still valid to this day.

3:15 Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, 3:16 That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; 3:17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,
Ephesians 3:15-17

Was The eastern Orthodox Church the church of the New Testament?

The Orthodox Churches split from the Roman in Church 1096. They also find there ultimate origin in Constantine. Other issues are at stake as well:

The orthodox deny the submission of the Holy SPirit. Yet isn't this what Jesus taught?
16:12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 16:13 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, [that] shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. 16:14 He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew [it] unto you.
Most of the eastern church follows the teachings of origin who openly synthezized the New Testament with Platonic philosophy like the jewish philosopher Philo.

What about the protestant churches; are they the churches of the New Testament?
These churches claim to be catholics with a small "c"
They have several preachers that founded these groups.
Martin luther (lutherans)
John Calvin (presbyterian and reformed)
Henry the 8th (anglican)
John Foxe (quakers)
John Wesley (methodist and wesleyans)
Therefore these groups do not have their origin in the New Testament. Usually they accept this fact. The problem is that most Protestant preachers are holding onto a mystical catholic church as their starting point and trying to make that more Biblical. They do not start over from scratch.
The word "reformation" implies that they were a church that change or reformed.
Now this does not mean that the Protestants were incapable of teaching through the Bible. Or that they got it wrong on justification by Faith.
It does mean they got it wrong on how to pastor a church and as a result their congregations have been beaten down with the heresy of liberalism quite easily.

1. The New Testament Church was prophesied to perpetuate
4:14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. 4:15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive [and] remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. 4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 4:17 Then we which are alive [and] remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.
1 Thessalonians 4:14-17
2. The Word of God would also survive
1:23 Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever. 1:24 For all flesh [is] as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away: 1:25 But the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.
1 Peter 1:23-25
3. New Testament churches followed the Bible and carried it.
13:46 Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles. 13:47 For so hath the Lord commanded us, [saying], I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth. 13:48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord: and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed. 13:49 And the word of the Lord was published throughout all the region. Acts
13:10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations.
Mark 13:10
4.The new testament taught salvation by grace through faith.
1:1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied. 1:3 Blessed [be] the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 1:4 To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you, 1:5 Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1Peter 1:1-5
2:16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified Galatians 2:16
5. The New Testament church taught baptism administered after confession of salvation.
19:1 And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples, 19:2 He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. 19:3 And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism. 19:4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. 19:5 When they heard [this], they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
Acts 19:1-5

6. The kingdom would continue
6:13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
11:15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become [the kingdoms] of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.
Revelation 11:15
7. Churches would congregate through preaching.
10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any [man] pluck them out of my hand.
John 10:22-28
10:13 For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. 10:14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? 10:15 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things! Ropmans 10:13-15

8. They would separate themselves from the world.
2:15 Love not the world, neither the things [that are] in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 2:16 For all that [is] in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. 1 John 2:15-16

9. They would continue not through there own gifts of discipleship but a movement of the spirit.
3:8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
10. New Testament churches were still subject to Judgement and indeed could have their candles blown out.
Revelation 2:5 Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.

The history of the anabaptist

Origin and history
"The question of the validity of baptism appears in two great phases in ecclesiastical history. The first controversy raged at an early date (third and fourth centuries) and regarded the minister of the sacrament (baptism conferred by heretics)." Catholic Encyclopedia "anabaptist"
So we see that the anabaptist started as protesting the same time as Constantine dominated the church. This is because they could not be anabaptist before constantine they could only be label New Testament Christians.

The name Anabaptists, etymologically applicable, and sometimes applied to Christian denominations that practise re-baptism is, in general historical usage, restricted to those who, denying the validity of infant baptism,Catholic Encyclopedia "anabaptist"
So churches with the label anabaptist is as Old as Catholicism. The difference is these churches would only be labeled Christian prior to the advent of Constantine.

"Manichæism obtained adherents among the highest classes of society. Barsymes the Nestorian prefect of Theodora, was an avowed Manichæan. But this recrudescence of Manichæism was soon suppressed.
Soon, however, whether under the name of Paulicians, or Bogomiles, it again invaded the Byzantine Empire, after having lain hidden for a time on Musselman territory"

The same groups that were labelled "anabaptised" were also called "Manichaen" by the Catholics. However, many of these groups did not have the chance to answer the charges against them and were slaughtered. Yet the ones who were allowed to confess their faith, preached an orthodox confession of faith. (such as the waldenses and the anabaptist/mennonites)

"Though a number of secret societies and dualistic sects may have existed here and there in obscurity, there is apparently no direct and conscious connection with the Prophet of Babylon and his doctrine. Yet when the Paulicians and Bogomili from Bulgaria came in contact with the West in the eleventh century, and eastern missionaries driven out by the Byzantine emperors taught dualist doctrines in the North of Italy and the South of France they found the leaven of Manichæism still so deeply pervading the minds of the many that they could make it ferment and rise into the formidable Catharist heresies. "
Here we see the Catholics admit that there is no direct linkage between the cult of mannichaenism and these persecuted anabaptist. It was just name-calling and propaganda.

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Petrobrusians rejected infant baptism and they and many subsequent medieval heretics (Henricians, Waldenses, Albigenses, and Bohemian Brethren) held views resembling in some respects the tenets of Anabaptists.
Even Catholic scholars here do admit that these groups do not originate from the Iranian prophet "manni". Yet there is a direct link among these groups with the protestant style preaching anabaptists and waldenses.

What we have to realize is that the New Testament church was not an empire, nor was it a precise theological system. systemaizing christianity many times can put religion of God in the sinful hands of man.

The people of the New Testament church were not perfect in their knowledge nor their holiness. Human nature is evil no matter what faith you claim.

The New Testament church was an organized body of sinners who had been saved by God's grace. They had recieved God in their hearts.
As Jesus said the truth had set them free. So they learned how to be servants to everyone while being slaves to no one.
True New testament christians do not come off as a superior race. If anything they are viewed as inferior and laughed at in the world system.

I am reminded by the anabaptised character in the novel "Candide". He seems to be the nicest character in the novel and is therefore murdered early.
Human history has remarkably little to say about New Testament Christians in history and it almost has less to say about us now.
The more biblical and New Testament a people group is, the more they are ignored an considered insignificant.

From New Testament Christianity we see some of the greatest heroics in the history of the church. Yet the New Testament church is not the source of the great acts of God. The church simply depends on the great God of the Bible(Jehovah) for its existence and perpetuity.

In revelation the antichrist is showns as a King, with a bow without arrows. Signifying that he does not lift a finger as his followers will protect him.
Jesus is shown with the sword of the Lord and his servants only have musical instruments. This is because he will protect them.

The New Testament Churches that existed between the time of Christ and the reformation are as follows:
Early churches, antioch, Montanist, Donatist, Lumbees, Novatians, Italian Waldenses, paulicans, albigenses, french Waldenses, lollards, hussites, moravians, Anabaptists.

Modern New Testament Churches include:
Baptists (most varieties), mennonites, separatist prebyterians(*), plymoth brethren, methodist circuit riders(*), nazarenes(*),assemblies of God,evangelical free church, Christian and missionary alliance, Calvary Chapel, Christian church*.

Baptist have over 5o denomenations in the USA by themselves of many types and varieties. Obviously baptist are not free of heresy and will fall short of the title "New Testament Church" at that time.

The Separatist presbyterians (british separatist and orthodox presbyterians) usually pass the criteria on everything but baptism and church government.

The early methodists circuit riders were focused upon the spreading of the gospel to the point where they were not hindered by the anglican style church government of today. Once this formalism was established so did apostasy grow.

Nazarenes are usually believer's baptists. However they are second only to the quackers in a lazy attitude towards the fulfilment of the great comission.

Many Pentecostal groups had unorthodox doctrines. Yet the assemblies of God had great deal of baptist influence that kept in qualification as a new testament church.

evangelical free church and calvary chapel deviate in the sense of top down government yet are otherwise New Testament Churches.

Many in the "Christian church" or campbellite movement are legalist denying justification by grace through faith alone. However there are many newer congregations which have become evangelical in faith and as a result fit the criteria of a new Testament Church.

Some may think I am too strict or too leniant on whom I identify as churches in the Bride of Christ. The most important issue is not which groups qualify as members of the Bride of Christ, but whether you are born again have settled for a congregation which submits to the New Covenant or traded in the Faith of Christ for freindship with the world.

In Christ, Matt

Saturday, March 6, 2010

Waldensian confessions of 1544 and1658 and fuller version of 1120

Waldenses Confession of 1544
1. We believe that there is but one God, who is a Spirit - the Creator of all things - the Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in us all; who is to be worshipped in spirit and in truth - upon whom we are continually dependent, and to whom we ascribe praise for our life, food, raiment, health, sickness, prosperity, and adversity. We love him as the source of all goodness; and reverence him as that sublime being, who searches the reins and trieth the hearts of the children of men.
2. We believe that Jesus Christ is the Son and image of the Father - that in Him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells, and that by Him alone we know the Father. He is our Mediator and advocate; nor is there any other name given under heaven by which we can be saved. In His name alone we call upon the Father, using no other prayers than those contained in the Holy Scriptures, or such as are in substance agreeable thereunto.
3. We believe in the Holy Spirit as the Comforter, proceeding from the Father, and from the Son; by whose inspiration we are taught to pray; being by Him renewed in the spirit of our minds; who creates us anew unto good works, and from whom we receive the knowledge of the truth.
4. We believe that there is one holy church, comprising the whole assembly of the elect and faithful, that have existed from the beginning of the world, or that shall be to the end thereof. Of this church the Lord Jesus Christ is the head - it is governed by His word and guided by the Holy Spirit. In the church it behooves all Christians to have fellowship. For her He [Christ] prays incessantly, and His prayer for it is most acceptable to God, without which indeed their could be no salvation.
5. We hold that the ministers of the church ought to be unblameable both in life and doctrine; and if found otherwise, that they ought to be deposed from their office, and others substituted in their stead; and that no person ought to presume to take that honour unto himself but he who is called of God as was Aaron - that the duties of such are to feed the flock of God, not for filthy lucre's sake, or as having dominion over God's heritage, but as being examples to the flock, in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, and in chastity.
6. We acknowledge, that kings, princes, and governors, are the appointed and established ministers of God, whom we are bound to obey [in all lawful and civil concerns]. For they bear the sword for the defence of the innocent, and the punishment of evil doers; for which reason we are bound to honour and pay them tribute. From this power and authority, no man can exempt himself as is manifest from the example of the Lord Jesus Christ, who voluntarily paid tribute, not taking upon himself any jurisdiction of temporal power.
7. We believe that in the ordinance of baptism the water is the visible and external sign, which represents to as that which, by virtue of God's invisible operation, is within us - namely, the renovation of our minds, and the mortification of our members through [the faith of] Jesus Christ. And by this ordinance we are received into the holy congregation of God's people, previously professing and declaring our faith and change of life.
8. We hold that the Lord's supper is a commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the benefits which we have received by His sufferings and death - and that it is to be received in faith and love - examining ourselves, that so we may eat of that bread and drink of that cup, as it is written in the Holy Scriptures.
9. We maintain that marriage was instituted of God. That it is holy and honourable, and ought to be forbidded to none, provided there be no obstacle from the divine word.
10. We contend, that all those in whom the fear of God dwells, will thereby be led to please him, and to abound in the good works [of the gospel] which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them - which are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, gentleness, sobriety, and the other good works enforced in the Holy Scriptures.
11. On the other hand, we confess that we consider it to be our duty to beware of false teachers, whose object is to divert the minds of men from the true worship of God, and to lead them to place their confidence in the creature, as well as to depart from the good works of the gospel, and to regard the inventions of men.
12. We take the Old and the New Testament for the rule of our life, and we agree with the general confession of faith contained in [what is usually termed] the apostles' creed.

Waldensian Convession (1655 A.D.)
A brief confession of faith of the Reformed Churches of Piedmont
Published with their Manifesto on the occasion of the frightful massacres of the year 1655.
Having understood that our adversaries, not contented to have most cruelly persecuted us, and robbed us of all our goods and estates, have yet an intention to render us odious to the world by spreading abroad many false reports, and so not only to defame our persons, but likewise to asperse with most shameful calumnies that holy and wholesome doctrine which we profess, we feel obliged, for the better information of those whose minds may perhaps be preoccupied by sinister opinions, to make a short declaration of our faith, such as we have heretofore professed as conformable to the Word of God; and so every one may see the falsity of those their calumnies, and also how unjustly we are hated and persecuted for a doctrine so innocent.
I. That there is one only God, who is a spiritual essence, eternal, infinite, all-wise, all merciful, and all-just, in one word, all-perfect; and that there are three persons in that one only and simple essence: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

II. That this God manifested himself to men by his works of Creation and Providence, as also by his Word revealed unto us, first by oracles in divers manners, and afterwards by those written books which are called the Holy Scripture.

III. That we ought to receive this Holy Scripture (as we do) for divine and canonical, that is to say, for the constant rule of our faith and life: as also that the same is fully contained in the Old and New Testament; and that by the Old Testament we must understand only such books as God did entrust the Jewish Church with, and which that Church has always approved and acknowledged to be from God: namely, the five books of Moses, Joshua, the Judges, Ruth, I and II Samuel, I and II of the Kings, I and II of the Chronicles, one of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, the Psalms, the Proverbs of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, the four great and twelve minor Prophets: and the New Testament containing the four gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St. Paul - 1 to the Romans, 2 to the Corinthians, 1 to the Galatians, 1 to the Ephesians, 1 to the Philippians, 1 to the Colossians {2 to the Thessalonians, 2 to Timothy, 1 to Titus, 1 to Philemon},
and the Epistle to the Hebrews; 1 of St. James, 2 of St. Peter, 3 of St. John, 1 of St. Jude, and the Revelation.

IV. We acknowledge the divinity of these sacred books, not only from the testimony of the Church, but more especially because of the eternal and indubitable truth of the doctrine therein contained, and of that most divine excellency, sublimity, and majesty which appears therein; and because of the operation of the Holy Spirit, who causes us to receive with reverence the testimony of the Church in that point, who opens our eyes to discover the beams of that celestial light which shines in the Scripture, and correct our taste to discern the divine savor of that spiritual food.
V. That God made all things of nothing by his own free will, and by the infinite power of the Word.

VI. That he governs and rules all by his providence, ordaining and appointing whatsoever happens in this world, without being the author or cause of any evil committed by the creatures, so that the guilt thereof neither can nor ought to be in any way imputed unto him.

VII. That the angels were all in the beginning created pure and holy, but that some of them have fallen into irreparable corruption and perdition; and that the rest have persevered in their first purity by an effect of divine goodness, which has upheld and confirmed them.

VIII. That man, who was created pure and holy, after the image of God, deprived himself through his own fault of that happy condition by giving credit to the deceitful words of the devil.

IX. That man by his transgression lost that righteousness and holiness which he had received, and thus incurring the wrath of God, became subject to death and bondage, under the dominion of him who has the power of death, that is, the devil; insomuch that our free will has become a servant and a slave to sin: and thus all men, both Jews and Gentiles, are, are by nature children of wrath, being all dead in their trespasses and sins, and consequently incapable of the least good motion to any thing which concerns their salvation: yea, incapable of one good thought without God's grace, all their imaginations being wholly evil, and that continually.

X. That all the posterity of Adam is guilty in him of his disobedience, infected by his corruption, and fallen into the same calamity with him, even the very infants from their mother's womb, whence is derived the name of original sin.
XI. That God saves from this corruption and condemnation those whom he has chosen {from the foundation of the world, not for any foreseen disposition, faith, or holiness in them, but} of his mercy in Jesus Christ his Son; passing by all the rest, according to the irreprehensible reason of his freedom and justice.

XII. That Jesus Christ having been ordained by the eternal decree of God to be the only Savior and only head of his body which is the Church, he redeemed it with his own blood in the fullness of time, and communicates unto the same all his benefits by means of the gospel.

XIII. That there are two natures in Jesus Christ, viz., divine and human, truly united in one and the same person, without confusion, division, separation, or alteration; each nature keeping its own distinct proprieties; and that Jesus Christ is both true God and true man.

XIV. That God so loved the world, that is to say, those whom he has chosen out of the world, that he gave his own Son to save us by his most perfect obedience (especially that obedience which he manifested in suffering the cursed death of the cross), and also by his victory over the devil, sin, and death.

XV. That Jesus Christ having made a full expiation for our sins by his most perfect sacrifice once offered on the cross, it neither can nor ought to be repeated upon any pretext whatsoever, as they pretend to do in the mass.

XVI. That the Lord Jesus having fully reconciled us unto God, through the blood of his cross, it is by virtue of his merits only, and not of our works, that we are absolved and justified in his sight.

XVII. That we are united to Jesus Christ and made partakers of his benefits by faith, which rests upon those promises of life which are made to us in his gospel.

XVIII. That this faith is the gracious and efficacious work of the Holy Spirit, who enlightens our souls, and persuades them to lean and rest upon the mercy of God, and so to apply the merits of Jesus Christ.

XIX. That Jesus Christ is our true and only Mediator, not only redeeming us, but also interceding for us, and that by virtue of his merits and intercession we have access unto the Father, to make our supplications unto him, with a holy confidence that he will grant our requests, it being needless to have recourse to any other intercessor besides himself.
XX. That as God promised us regeneration in Jesus Christ, so those who are united to him by a living faith ought to apply, and do really apply themselves, unto good works.

XXI. That good works are so necessary to the faithful that they can not attain the kingdom of heaven without the same, seeing that God has prepared them that we should walk therein; and there fore we ought to flee from vice, and apply ourselves to Christian virtues, making use of fasting, and all other means which may conduce to so holy a thing.

XXII. That, although our good works can not merit any thing, yet the Lord will reward or recompense them with eternal life, through the merciful continuation of his grace, and by virtue of the unchangeable constancy of his promises made unto us.

XXIII. That those who are already in the possession of eternal life in consequence of their faith and good works ought to be considered as saints and glorified persons, and to be praised for their virtue and imitated in all good actions of their life, but neither worshipped nor invoked, for God only is to be prayed unto, and that through Jesus Christ.
XXVIII. That God does not only instruct us by his Word, but has also ordained certain sacraments to be joined with it, as means to unite us to Jesus Christ, and to make us partakers of his benefits; and that there are only two of them belonging in common to all the members of the Church under the New Testament - to wit, Baptism and the Lord's Supper.

XXIX. That Christ has instituted the sacrament of Baptism to be a testimony of our adoption, and that therein we are cleansed from our sins by the blood of Jesus Christ, and renewed in holiness of life.

XXX. That he has instituted the Holy Supper, or Eucharist, for the nourishment of our souls, to the end that eating effectually the flesh of Christ, and drinking effectually his blood, by a true and living faith, and by the incomprehensible virtue of the Holy Spirit, and so uniting ourselves most closely and inseparably to Christ, we come to enjoy in him and by him the spiritual and eternal life.

Now to the end that every one may clearly see what our belief is as to this point, we here insert the very expressions of that prayer which we make use of before the Communion, as they are written in our Liturgy or form of celebrating the Holy Supper, and likewise in our public Catechism, which are to be seen at the end of our Psalms; these are the words of the prayer:
'Seeing our Lord has not only once offered his body and blood for the remission of our sins, but is willing also to communicate the same unto us as the food of eternal life, we humbly beseech thee to grant us this grace that in true sincerity of heart and with an ardent zeal we may receive from him so great a benefit; that is, that we may be made partakers of his body and blood, or rather of his whole self, by a sure and certain faith.'

The words of the Liturgy are these: 'Let us then believe first of all the promises which Christ (who is the infallible truth) has pronounced with his own mouth, viz., that he will make us truly partakers of his body and blood, that so we may possess him entirely, in such a manner that he may live in us and we in him.'
The words of our Catechism are the same, Nella Dominica 53.
XXXI. That it is necessary the Church should have pastor known by those who are employed for that purpose to be well instructed and of a good life, as well to preach the Word of God as to administer the sacraments, and wait upon the flock of Christ (according to the rules of a good and holy discipline), together with elders and deacons, after the manner of the primitive Church.

XXXII. That God has established kings and magistrates to govern the people, and that the people ought to be subject and obedient unto them, by virtue of that ordination, not only for fear, but also for conscience' sake, in all things that are conformable to the Word of God, who is the King of kings and the Lord of lords.

XXXIII. Finally, that we ought to receive the symbol of the Apostles, the Lord's Prayer, and the Decalogue as fundamentals of our faith and our devotion.
And for a more ample declaration of our faith we do here reiterate the same protestation which we caused to be printed in 1603, that is to say, that we do agree in sound doctrine with all the Reformed Churches of France, Great Britain, the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and others, as it is set forth by them in their confessions; as also in the Confession of Augsburg, as it was explained by the author,[1] promising to persevere constantly therein with the help of God, both in life and death, and being ready to subscribe to that eternal truth of God with our own blood, even as our ancestors have done from the days of the Apostles, and especially in these latter ages.
Therefore we humbly entreat all the Evangelical and Protestant Churches, notwithstanding our poverty and lowness, to look upon us as true members of the mystical body of Christ, suffering for his name's sake, and to continue unto us the help of their prayers to God, and all other effects of their charity, as we have heretofore abundantly experienced, for which we return them our most humble thanks, entreating the Lord with all our heart to be their rewarder, and to pour upon them the most precious blessings of grace and glory, both in this life and in that which is to come. Amen.

1. Viz., the editio variata of 1540, which Calvin subscribed at Strasburg.
XXIV. That God has chosen one Church in the world for the salvation of men, and that this Church has one only head and foundation, which is Jesus Christ.

XXV. That this Church is the company of the faithful, who, having been elected by God before the foundation of the world, and called with a holy calling, unite themselves to follow the Word of God, believing whatsoever he teaches them therein, and living in his fear.

XXVI. That this Church can not fail, nor be annihilated, but must endure forever {and that all the elect are upheld and preserved by the power of God in such sort that they all persevere in the faith unto the end, and remain united in the holy Church, as so many living members thereof}.

XXVII. That all men ought to join with that Church, and to continue in the communion thereof.

The Waldensian Confession of Faith
Copied from
The History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piemont
by Samuel Morland (London, 1658), pp. 30-34.
Reprint by CHRAA, 1982.
[Morland was commissioned by Oliver Cromwell to give aid
to the Waldenses and to research their history.
Original spellings have been preserved.]
An ancient Confession of Faith of the Waldenses, Copied
out of certain Manuscripts, bearing date Anno Dom.
1120. That is to say, near 400 years before the
time of either Calvin or Luther.

We believe and firmly hold all that which is contained in the twelve Articles of the Symbol, which is
called the Apostles’ Creed, accounting for Heresie whatsoever is disagreeing, and not consonant to the
said 12 Articles.
Article 2.
We do believe that there is one God, Father, Son, & Holy Ghost.
Article 3.
We acknowledg for the holy Canonical Scriptures, the Books of the holy Bible. The Books of Moses
called Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1st Samuel, 2nd
of Samuel, 1st of Kings, 2nd of Kings, 1st Chronicles, 2nd Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job,
Psalms. The Proverbs of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, or the Preacher, The Song of Solomon, The Prophesies
of Isaiah, and Jeremiah. The Lamentations of Jeremiah. Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah,
Jonas, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
Here follow the Books Apocryphal, which are not received of the Hebrews. But we reade them (as
saith St. Hierome in his Prologue to the Proverbs) for the instruction of the People, not to confirm the
Authority of the Doctrine of the Church: 2nd Esdras, 3d Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus,
Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah, Esther from the tenth Chapter to the end, The Song of the three
Children in the Fornace, The History of Susanna, The History of the Dragon, 1 Maccabes, 2 Maccabes,
3 Maccabes.
Here follow the Books of the New Testament: The Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and
John, The Acts of the Apostles, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians,
Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy,
Titus, Philemon, The Epistle to the Hebrews, The Epistle of James, The first Epistle of Peter, The
second Epistle of Peter, The first Epistle of John, The second Epistle of John, The third Epistle of John,
The Epistle of Jude, The Revelation of John.
Article 4.
The Books above-said teach this, That there is one God, Almighty, all wise, and all good, who has
made all things by his goodness, For he formed Adam in his own image and likeness, but that by the
envy of the Devil, and the disobedience of the said Adam, sin has entred into the World, and that we are
Sinners in Adam and by Adam.
Article 5.
That Christ was promised to our Fathers who received the Law, that so knowing by the Law their sin,
unrighteousness and insufficiency, they might desire the coming of Christ, to satisfie for their sins, and
accomplish the Law by himself.
Article 6.
That Christ was born in the time appointed by God the Father. That is to say, in the time when all
iniquity abounded, and not for the cause of good works, for all were Sinners; but that he might shew us
grace and mercy, as being faithfull.
Article 7.
That Christ is our life, truth, peace, and righteousness, as also our Pastour, Advocate, Sacrifice, and
Priest, who died for the salvation of all those that believe, and is risen for our justification.
Article 8.
In like manner, we firmly hold, that there is no other Mediatour and Advocate with God the Father,
save onely Jesus Christ. And as for the Virgin Mary, that she was holy, humble, and full of grace; and
in like manner do we believe concerning all the other Saints, that being in Heaven they wait for the
Resurrection of their Bodies at the Day of Judgment.
Article 9.
We believe that after this life, there are onely two places, the one for the saved, and the other for the
damned, the which two places we call Paradise and Hell, absolutely denying that Purgatory invented by
Antichrist and forged contrary to the truth.
Article 10.
We have always accounted as an unspeakable abomination before God, all those Inventions of men,
namely, the Feasts and the Vigils of Saints, the Water which they call holy. As likewise to abstain from
flesh upon certain Days, and the like; but especially their Masses.
Article 11.
We esteem for an abomination and as Anti-Christian, all those humane Inventions which are a trouble
or prejudice to the Liberty of the Spirit.
Article 12.
We do believe that the Sacraments are signs of the holy thing, or visible forms of the invisible grace,
accounting it good that the faithfull sometimes use the said signs or visible forms, if it may be done.
However, we believe and hold, that the above-said faithfull may be saved without receiving the signs
aforesaid, in case they have no place nor any means to use them.
Article 13.
We acknowledg no other Sacrament but Baptism and the Lords Supper.
Article 14.
We ought to honour the secular powers, by subjection, ready obedience, and paying of Tributes

gathered from

a case for the Waldenses ancient origin

Ephesians 3:21 Unto him [be] glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.

1. Peter Waldo still preached the evangelical New Testament gospel over a century before Wycliff and Huss; not to mention over 3oo years before Luther!
The roman Catholic and mailine protestant argument always ignores the existence of the waldensees.
Catholics always start off there argument with claiming a 1500 year gap in church history. But in order to do this they lie! They deny the existence of not only the waldenses but multiple churches throughout he centuries. Even if the Waldensees were off the table. You still have the montanist, Donatist,Paulicans, lumbees and several similar sects. The fact is that these people not only existed but were murdered for their faith. I for one will not forget their sacrifice.

2.The Waldensian name is of Italian origin

“Cardinal Peter Damian, one of the able builders of the papal edifice,
in his campaign (A.D. 1059) against these primitive Christians in northern Italy, called
them Subalpini. The word in common parlance to designate these borderers of the Alps
was ‘Vallenses,’ from which in time the V was changed into W; one of the l’s into d,
and they have since the twelfth century generally been called Waldenses.”
To verify that all of this is correct, I would like to refer to the Junior Classic Latin
Dictionary, Latin-English and English-Latin, by Antonio J. Provost, head of the Modern
Language department, University of Notre Dame. Note: the abbreviations used from
this source are: f. = feminine gender; s. = substantive; fig. = figuratively; poet. =
In the English-Latin section, p. 203 it says, “ valley, s. vallis, convallis, is f. ” Then
in the Latin-English section it says on p. 154, “ vallis, is f. valley, vale, fig. (poet.)
hallow.” In this same section, p. 27, under “ convallis ” it says: “ convallis is, f. deep
valley.” From these definitions in Latin, it is clear that the term “Waldenses ”
(“ Vallenses ”) meaning “ people of the valley ” has absolutely nothing to do with the
historical character by the name of Peter Waldo. It’s a Roman Catholic lie.
To demonstrate that the Junior Classic Latin Dictionary is correct, we will now go
to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language under “ valley ” which has
the usual English definition. This dictionary goes beyond others as it has an appendix of
Indo-European Roots. Before we go to the appendix, let’s read the origin of the word at
the end of the definition: “ [Middle English, valley from Norman French, from Vulgar
Latin vall.ta (unattested), from Latin vallis, valls. See wel-3 in Appendix] ”, and we will
drop in at #10: “ Perhaps variant wall- in Latin valls, vallis, valley (‘that which is
surrounded by hills ’ ): VAIL1, VALE1, VALLEY.” You will notice the “ variant wall- in Latin ”
suggests a “w” sound in place of the “ v ” sound, and may be the reason why
“ Vallenses ” had evolved into “ Waldenses ”.
Again we will go to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
for a history of the letter “W” in our alphabet: “ The letter W is a descendant of the
letter V. Around 1000 B.C. the Phoenicians and other Semites of Syria and Palestine
began to use a graphic sign in the forms [not able to show here] . They gave it the name
w.w and used it for a semiconsonant w, as in English know, knows. After 900 B.C.,
when the Greeks borrowed the alphabet from the Phoenicians, they developed two
signs from w.w. The first sign, which they called upsilon, ‘ bare u,’ they used for the
vowel u. The Greek form without the tail passed via Etruscan to the Roman alphabet, in
which it was used for two sounds, semiconsonantal w and vocalic u, as in the writing of
VENIO and IVLIVS. In later Roman times the sound w became v. Before the Norman
Conquest of England the Anglo-Saxons used the Latin letter V, as in the Uncial form,
for the sounds u, v, and w. Later the habit developed to use V for u and v, but to write
V doubly for the sound w. Gradually the two separate letters were linked to form a new
character, as in the Cursive form. Our modern printed letters, capital and lower-case,
are formally constructed by analogy with the printed V, while the written forms revert to
the Cursive.”
With this comprehensive explanation, one can now see why the term
“ Vallenses ” developed into “Waldenses ” especially during the Middle Ages around
400 to 1200 A.D."

Clifton A. Emahiser’s Teaching Ministries

3. The 1120 A.D. confession of faith was uncovered by Samuel moreland in 1658. Moreland was commission by Oliver Cromwell to give aid to the Waldenses and to research their history. The Waldenses were massacred by the Roman Catholic church at that time. just three years earlier they printed there third confession of Faith. So they obviously gave permission. The document found was dated 1120.

Now one can claim that this document was forged by the Waldensees. However, the confession doesn't match the 2nd one. The first is more anabaptist and allows reading from the apocrypha. Yet the second does not. The third is entirely more reformed than anabaptist. Apparently the first is also written in Italian.

4. None of the Waldensees confessions, nor other writings from the ancient church ascribe Waldo to be the founder of the church. Yet this is odd among reformers. When we look at the way protestants honor Luther, Calvin, Wesley etc. It would seem odd that the Waldenses not give respect to their supposed church father.

“This theory sweeps away at a breath not only the apostolic but the Italian origin of the Waldensian church, making it no older than the year 1160, when Peter Waldo began his ministry in france.” Pg. 25
“The Waldenses except a few recently, have never, during these seven centuries, recognized him as their head. Their oldest writings, their confessions of faith, their catechisms and poems, are not his, and make no mention of him.
Hecould not have found a church which by the very confessions of its enemies already existed, and which is well known to have professed in the ninth century evangelical doctrines opposed to those of the Roman Church.”
Pg 26
A short history of the Italian Waldenses
Sofia Bompiani
Harvard college Library, from the library of Frank Dyer Chester, class of 1891, The gift of Joseph C. Willey 1939

5. Waldenses were commonly accused to be the same as the albigenses as well as Paulicans. It is obvious that similarity points to the fact that these groups held the same faith. which is much more ancient than Peter Waldo.
Catholic apologists typicaly lump these groups together in the same heresies, but then deny that they were unified and providing an alternative church. The Waldenses confessions of faith show just what faith they are.
The Inquisition was used to destroy all these so-called "heretics" in order to keep an iron grip on their "holy Roman Empire". But if the Waldenses had an evangelical faith then perhaps these other groups did as well. After all why were medeival europeans really so concerned with preserving Iranian doctrine?

6. Waldenses of the past testified to their ancient origin.
Many site Waldensees of this century giviong up on there doctrine. However the waldensees church has grown apostate. it would be comparable to interviewing an anglican Bishop on his views and assuming the same was true in the late 1500's. The waldenses today sadly deny the Bible and salvation. They are only genetic relatives. Yet the Waldenses of that day indeed believed that their church streched back to the apostles.

7. voltaire reveals that there was historical revisionism among french catholics.

“‘Auricular confession was not received as late as the eighth and ninth centuries
in the countries beyond the Loire, in Languedoc and the Alps – Alcuin complains of this
in his letters. The inhabitants of those countries appear to have always had an
inclination to abide by the customs of the primitive church, and to reject the tenets and
customs which the church in its more flourishing state judged convenient to adopt.
“‘Those who were called Manichaeans, and those who were afterward named
Albigenses, Vaudois, Lollards, and who appeared so often under different names, were
remnants of the first Gaulish Christians, who were attached to several ancient customs,
which the Church of Rome thought proper to alter afterward.”
(Voltaire, Additions to
Ancient and Modern History, vol. 29, pp. 227, 242.)