Monday, June 15, 2015

A new look at an old word: chapter 1 Biblical Presuppostions to Biblical criticism



When we discuss the issues that surround Biblical manuscripts, there is an invisible topic or elephant in the room that no one discusses, and that is authority.  How do we determine the authority of the Bible; and what do we have to judge the scriptures? Before we approach the question of which manuscripts are accurate, we must ask ourselves , what are our philosophical presuppositions going in?  When we engage in these questions, we are engaging in the practice of epistemology.
E-pis-te-mol-o-gy) n.  The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, it's presuppositions and foundations and it's extent and validity. (American Heritage Dictionary)
 Many secularists have declared that man is the measure of all things, before man, who was there to measure it?

Job 38:3-7Authorized (King James) Version (AKJV)

Gird up now thy loins like a man;
for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me.
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?
declare, if thou hast understanding.
Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest?
or who hath stretched the line upon it?
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened?
or who laid the corner stone thereof;
when the morning stars sang together,
and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Many use the argument  that truth is just a story we tell.  But this would mean there is no truth, then they become liars.
Job 38:Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge?
 

 We ought to start out our theological task in consideration of God prior to our discussion of worldly Affairs.

"The independence or Aseity of God.  By this is meant that God is in no sense correlative to or dependent upon anything beside his own being.  The term source can not be applied to God. God is absolute (John 5:26; Acts 17:25) he is sufficient unto himself." (pg.5)
"Man cannot in any sense be the source of his own being; Man cannot in any sense be immutable or simple." (pg. 5)
"Man as a creature can not will anything either by way of obedience or by way of disobedience except in a relation of subordination to the plan of God." pg. 12
"Man was created in God's image.  Man can never outgrow his creature hood this plus a definite connotation into the expression that man is like God.  He is like God, to be sure but always on a creaturely scale." pg. 14

"When man fell it was therefore an attempt to do without God n every respect." pg. 15
"Originally man had interpreted the universe under the direction of God but now He sought to interpret the universe without reference to the kind of God defined above." pg. 15-16 Cornelius Van Til Christian Apologetics
   If you believe in the Christian God, you need to apply the doctrine of Him into all your thoughts and interpretations of life.  You are not the starting point!  God is the starting point.  We cannot make a world without God and then somehow force him to fit into it!  From our understanding of God, we know that He is ultimate, self-sufficient and sovereign.  While we on the other hand are limited in our capacity and warped by a sinful nature.  Therefore, when we come to the subject as a delicate as the handling of God's Holy Word, we must be careful not to address the situation like that of a pagan. But start out in submission to the authority of God.
If we believe in God, then His word can be understood.
" If God created man in his own rational image and endowed him wit the power of speech, then a purpose of language, in fact, the chief purpose of language would naturally be the revelation of truth to man and the prayers of man to God.  ... On the contrary language was devised by God, that is God created man rational for the purpose of theological expression... if reason, i.e. logic, which makes speech possible, is a God given faculty it must be adequate to its divinely appointed task.  And its task is the reception of divinely revealed information and the systematization of these propositions in Dogmatic Theology." Gordon H. Cark "Special revelation as rational"  Revelation and the Bible. Edit. Carl H.F.Henry Habakkuk 2:And the Lord answered me, and said, Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables,




that he may run that readeth it.

If we Believe in God, then His Word is authoritative."No other doctrine is compatible with absolute-personality theism.  If God is a person who speaks with absolute authority, then he reveals himself than supreme authoritative speech and writing. If God revealed himself in such a way that we could freely criticize his words and believe something else instead, then he would not be the God revealed in scripture.  One does not talk back to the Biblical God, His Word has supreme authority.  And just as it can not be disproved by something else of Greater authority, so it can not be disproved in such a way.  God's Word. like himself, must be supremely authoritative and therefore self-attesting.  On the conventional wisdom the biblical doctrine of scripture is implausible; but if you presuppose a Christian worldview no other doctrine of revelation is conceivable" John M. Frame Apologetics to the Glory of God pg. 135

God inspired His Word without error2 Samuel 23:The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word was in my tongue"
Amos 3:Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.The lion hath roared, who will not fear? the Lord God hath spoken, who can but prophesy?

Numbers 23:19 God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent:
hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?"

Psalm 147:Great is our Lord, and of great power:
his understanding is infinite.
2 Timothy 3:1616 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: "1319 didaskalia {did-as-kal-ee'-ah}(Doctrine) from 1320; TDNT- 2:160,161; n f
AV- doctrine 19, teaching 1, learning 1; 21
1) teaching, instruction 2) teaching 2a) that which is taught doctrine 2b) teacrungs, precepts 1650 elegchos {el'-eng- kbos}(Reproot) from 1651; TDNT- 2:476,221; n m AV - reproof 1,evidence 1 ; 2
1) a proof, that bv which a thing  is proved or tested 2) conviction
Strong's Lexicon
2Peter 1: 
18 And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount.  19 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.
21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.IT IS INFALLABLE Matthew 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. 18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. 19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
- "This refers to the entire  O.T  revelation and the righteousness required by it.  It introduces Jesus' uncompromising acceptance of the authority of the 0.T. as God's  Word (vv.17-19). Verse 18 reflects the extant of inspiration of the Torah or Law. here a reference to the 0.T. Jesus argues that not a  jot' or 'tittle'  shall pass from the Law. 'Jot' is a reference to the smallest  letter in the Hebrew alphabet. the yodh (''' ''). 'Tittle'  refers to a small extension on a Hebrew letter which differentiates it  from another letter. For example, the Hebrew beth ('_') differs from the Herbew Kaph ('_ ') only by a small extension of the beth at the lower right-hand extremity of the letter. The minuteness of detail makes  clear Jesus' view of the thoroughness of inspiration. He rejects the righteousness of the Pharisees and scribes. which is reflected in their interpretations of the Law (vv17-48) as well as in their actual practice o.f righteousness  (6:1-18). The righteousness demanded by the kingdom of God is a righteousness  of the heart, which was envisioned by the Law and the prophets (vv.l7-48). The practice of it is related to others (6:1-4),  to God (6:5-15) and to oneself {6:16-18).  Jesus' insistence upon the authority of his own teaching as equally binding (v. 20) means that he speaks with the authority of God just as did the 0.T prophets. Jesus interpretation of the Law is antithetical to that of the Pharisees. Who charged Jesus with destroying the Law, a charge answered in vv. 17-20. He also warned Antinomians. those who construe liberty as license, that freedom from the law (vv.18-20).  The word for law is the Greek ''nomos", which is analogous to the Hebrew word Torah. translated "law" meaning "teaching" or ·'direction" Torah referred to the Oral law later codified in the Mishnah (c. A.D.200) or to the gemera (heb., "completion'').. the interpretations of the Mishnah by the rabbis from A.D. 200-500 9c.f  15:2).  It could also designate the Pentateuch, the whole 0.T. the Ten Commandments. or simply instruction. teaching or divine revelation.   The law became so exalted by the rabbis in Judaism that it became the explanation and justification Israel's existence.  However at the heart of 0.T. religion was the covenant  and not the law. which was only a standard of obedience necessary for the presentation of the covenant relationship."    W.A. Criswell & Paige  Patterson   Holy Bible Baptist Study  Edition (it is interesting in that this publication is new-evangelical and not KJVO)
When we think of Verbal Inspiration it is clear from this passage, to even those with a new-evangelical doctrine against the preservation of scripture, that the very words of the prophets were under the supervision of the Holy Spirit.
  God's Word is pure and preserved
psalm 12:The words of the Lord are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.Thou shalt keep them, O Lord,thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.
psalm 33:11 The counsel of the Lord standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations.Isaiah6::5 Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts.
Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar:
And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged.
Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then said I, Here am I; send me.
Isaiah 59:21 As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord; My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever.
Matthew 24:  35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.
Luk 16:17 And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.

God's Word is preserved to bring us assurance of Salvation
1 Corinthians 15:1 Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have  received, and wherein ye stand; 2 by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:1 peter 1:23 being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever. 24 For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away: 25 but the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.

 The canon of Scripture is God's inspired and preserved revelation

2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 
Mark 13: 10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations. 
Matthew 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

The Canon is identified by Christians, by it's illumination on the hearts of born-again Christians
John 6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.  45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me. 46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father. 
John 10:26 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you. 27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:"
1 Corinthians 2:10 But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 15 But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man. 16 For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ."
  The Holy Spirit illuminates or moves the hearts of Christians who have been born again. A Christian who has been Born-again is anointed with the Holy Spirit.  The Holy Spirit inspired the Bible.  When Christians read the Word of God they can sense that same Holy Spirit.

God is in Heaven

psalm 119: 89 For ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in heaven. 90 Thy faithfulness is unto all generations: thou hast established the earth, and it abideth. 91 They continue this day according to thine ordinances: for all are thy servants." 
Deuteronomy 4:2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you."
Deuteronomy 12:28 Observe and hear all these words which I command thee, that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee for ever, when thou doest that which is good and right in the sight of the Lord thy God.
Deuteronomy 12: 32 What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it. 

Proverbs 30: Every word of God is pure:
he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him.
Add thou not unto his words,
lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar Jeremiah 26:Thus saith the Lord; Stand in the court of the Lord’s house, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in the Lord’s house, all the words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a word:
 
Matthew 15:6 and honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition. Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men."
1 Corinthians 4: And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another. 
1 Thessalonians 5: 27 I charge you by the Lord that this epistle be read unto all the holy brethren  
2Thessalonians 3:14 And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. 
Revelation 22: 18 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: 19 and if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book."

God's Word is preserved by Believers
Isaiah 59:21 As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord;

My spirit that is upon thee,
and my words which I have put in thy mouth,
shall not depart out of thy mouth,
nor out of the mouth of thy seed,
nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed,
saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever.Mark 13:10:10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations
1
 timothy 3:15 but if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.

"The church is the house of God; he dwells there. The church  holds forth the Scripture and the doctrine of Christ,  as a pillar holds forth a proclamation. When a church  ceases to be the pillar and ground of truth, we may and ought to forsake her; for our regard to truth should be first and greatest." Matthew Henry

Born again Christians are a royal Priesthood; and one of the duties of the priesthood is to teach God's Word.    
1 Peter 2:9  But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:
Malachi 2:The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from iniquity. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts."It is  Worth noting that the process of selecting  authoritative  books grew out of The life of the Christian community, as that community used those books and found some more valuable than others, rather than being determined by some assembly  of church officials. In a sense, the canon developed  with the community. It therefore grew up out of the community, from the grassroots, as it were, rather than having been imposed from above by some authoritative person or council." Introducing the New Testament Achtemeier, Green, & Thompson   Pg.603-604 (It is good to notice that this was a non-baptist.non-conservative publication.)
Old testament was to be preserved by the Jews
Deuteronomy 17:
18 And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites
  the king Mentioned will be Jesus Christ in His millennial reign.
Romans 3:1 
What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of circumcision?
Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.
Romans 9:who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises;"

The New Testament will be preserved by Christians
Mark 13: 
10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations.
Acts 6:But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.

1 Corinthians  2:17For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ.  
 2 Corinthians 3:14 but their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in Christ."
2 Corinthians 4: but have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God. 
 2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ."
Hebrews 8: 10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:




Non-believers are often evil and always depraved and untrustworthy.
Matthew 15:14 Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
Romans 3: 10 as it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: 11 there is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. 12 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. 13 Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: 14 whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: 15 their feet are swift to shed blood: 16 destruction and misery are in their ways: 17 and the way of peace have they not known: 18 there is no fear of God before their eyes."

Eph 2: wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others."
1 john 3:
10 In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother."
2 Corinthians 4:
But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: in whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them."
2 Corinthians 3: 14 but their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in Christ.15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart. 16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away.

They are not to be trusted with God's Word because they tend to reject it.
Psalm 50:16 But unto the wicked God saith,
What hast thou to do to declare my statutes,or that thou shouldest take my covenant in thy mouth? 17 Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee.18 When thou sawest a thief, then thou consentedst with him, and hast been partaker with adulterers.19 Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy tongue frameth deceit.

Jeremiah 36: And Jeremiah commanded Baruch, saying, I am shut up; I cannot go into the house of the Lord: therefore go thou, and read in the roll, which thou hast written from my mouth, the words of the Lord in the ears of the people in the Lord’s house upon the fasting day: and also thou shalt read them in the ears of all Judah that come out of their cities. It may be they will present their supplication before the Lord, and will return every one from his evil way: for great is the anger and the fury that the Lord hath pronounced against this people. And Baruch the son of Neriah did according to all that Jeremiah the prophet commanded him, reading in the book the words of the Lord in the Lord’s house."








Jeremiah 36: 20 And they went in to the king into the court, but they laid up the roll in the chamber of Elishama the scribe, and told all the words in the ears of the king. 21 So the king sent Jehudi to fetch the roll: and he took it out of Elishama the scribe’s chamber. And Jehudi read it in the ears of the king, and in the ears of all the princes which stood beside the king. 22 Now the king sat in the winterhouse in the ninth month: and there was a fire on the hearth burning before him. 23 And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he cut it with the penknife, and cast it into the fire that was on the hearth, until all the roll was consumed in the fire that was on the hearth. 24 Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments, neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words.

John 8: 37 I know that ye are Abraham’s seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you." 
John 8: 43 Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word. 44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. 45 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not." 
John 8: 47 He that is of God heareth God’s words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God."

Translators should be judged by their fruits
Matthew 7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. 16 Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? 17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. 18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. 19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 20 Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.21 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. 22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity."

Alexandrian advocates dismiss the KJVO definition of preservation.  Yet very rarely do they bother to publicly interact with the texts of scripture that would concern the issue.  Most King James defense books start at the biblical doctrine of preservation; however Alexandrian defense books assume that the advocate must be starting with a presuppositional bias towards the king James bible.  Yet very rarely do they ever run through the scriptures carefully exegeting them to understand what they teach on this topic.  If these passages have been properly interpreted, the debate is over.  Because the opposition has no preserved scriptures to scrutinize.  But some things are better experienced, so let us read on...























 

                                                                                                                                                            






                    































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